Contents international patterns in the history of Hungarian educational administration

II. The balance-principle in elementary schooling

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II. The balance-principle in elementary schooling

Despite the traditional interpretation - “educational policy of dualism - modernisation from the centrum, following a Prussian model” - the study describes the Hungarian system as a system which was influenced by the English pattern.

- The essay describes how the Hungarian experts - not only the university professors - but teachers and bureaucrats, financed by scholarships of government - studied and interpreted the British model.

- A lot of elements - especially in the state-church relation, the preconditions of the state support to the church owned schools - seem to be a typical British solution.

- The strong power of the county and the municipality in the educational administration is an important element in the description.

- We have to stress then when the municipal and country level became weaker in the 1890-s - it is not a simple concentration of power into the hand of the government or the local representatives of the state government. From that time the role of the Administrative Court has a very significant role in the educational policy. (The role of courts - a model-relevant element in the Anglo-American educational policies, contra Continental ones.)

- The local (municipal level, elected school boards) is a very significant element of this educational policy too. The study describes that when the teachers fought against the nonprofessional control - they formed a coalition with the authoritative forces of the administration.

- We have to stress, that the election of the Catholic school board was the most democratic element of the very nondemocratic life of Catholicism of Hungary. This acts and ministerial orders guaranteed the right of Catholic citizens - in the situation when the Catholic church did not want to expect the lay control in any question.

- The main goals of the members of the educational administration, the guaranties for professionalisation - they use the French pattern.

- The most “nonconform” part of the study attacks the traditional interpretation of the question of educational policy towards national minorities. One of the “nonconform” argumentation stress: From a liberal-individual viewpoint, from the viewpoint of the Individual Romanian, Serbian etc. the expansion of the state school at the turn of the century brought better chances to educated men, to the social mobility

- The other nonconform argumentation stresses from a historical viewpoint: The greatest part of Hungarian historians said as evidence, that the minorities and the Hungarian government conflicted in 1907 over the controlling of orthodox church - schools and this was only a tool in the hand of the government minority policy. Contrasting them the author stresses that there are other reasons of this conflict: a kind of kulturkampf between the very conservative, feudal type orthodox church and the liberal (post-liberal) state. This conflict happened in very similar forms in 1895-1902 in England.

- The interpretations up to now describe the industrial apprentice schools as the basic level of the vocational education, the training of workers, and handy craftsman. The author interprets this process as the part of elementary schooling. In Hungary - similarly to “Factory Acts” of England - it forced the employers to send the worker-children to the schools. The typical conflict in the boards of industrial apprentice school is similar to the state-parents conflicts around the compulsory school attendance and less to the typical conflicts of vocational schools.

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