Contents international patterns in the history of Hungarian educational administration


The questions which were debated in the framework of these two cleavages



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The questions which were debated in the framework of these two cleavages:

  1. Society-conform or internationally conform schooling (following the norms of local nobility or following the norms of international patterns)

  2. Latin, German or Magyar as the language of the instruction in Hungarian denominational schools?

  3. The new international pattern: Prussia: General law of Hungarian Education (Ratio Educationis in 1777) as the starter of new competition.

  4. The steps of court generalised an inner conflict in the Protestant church between the modern lay noblemen and the leaders of the church. The modern wing suggested the acceptance of the Ratio, but the clergy-leaders of the Church declared that every element of the teaching belongs to the autonomy , so the Protestant theology is a determining factor in any subject.

  5. The enlightened emperor’s Joseph II’s language order in 1784: demolishing of Latin as integration in the German Austrian patterns and culture.

  6. The universal assembly of Lutherans accepted these tendencies in the spirit of the international neo-humanism.

  7. Latin had gradually became an obstacle to the most important Hungarian Protestant tradition of education, studying abroad, because the language of introduction in the most popular German universities became German, and the Hungarian students understand only their own traditional Latin.

  8. From the 1830s the leaders of reform movement showed the practical orientation of developed foreign nations, as a pattern and reference, characterized the supporters of Latin as creators of a “holy language” which could preserve the required social gap between them and the lower social strata.

The fact that modernization of education was a competitional and not an ideological one can be illustrated by the fact that the Protestant modernists won in their circles only after the victory of modernist forces in the state-controlled Catholic sphere.

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