Contents international patterns in the history of Hungarian educational administration


The history teaching as the media of party pluralism



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The history teaching as the media of party pluralism


Some questions in the textbooks of communist time were declared not by scientific monopo­lies, but from direct political reasons.

The East German textbooks could not face the German past, because - in the textbooks - the antifascist German workers movement became the dominant factor of the modern German history.

The Czechoslovakian textbooks could not show a real picture about Masaryk- and Benes-formed democratic state, because the communists in 1948 made a coup against this political regime, and they need a political legitimisation of this.

The Hungarian Textbooks could not describe the importance and realities of 1956 - because the person of Kadar. (In a lot of meanings the Hungarian textbooks of the seventies and eighties were the most objective among the East European textbooks - the interpretation of 1956 is an exception)

In the process of the changing of the regime it became very important: the new generation, the “generation of democracy” have to understand the basic facts of these untold stories. The persons, facts, dates, places of the untold stories of the revolution of 1956 of Budapest or the 1944 of Warsaw were build into the national cultural canon.

Some history textbooks - I can say some good examples of the textbook history of Hungary of the early 1990s - present a real political question. When these books interpret the history of enbourgisement, the second world war, the Holocaust, the communist period - they works as a real political media.

The different opinions about the 20th century Hungarian history mirrored not only different professional-scientific cleavages, but more widely ideological cleavages and sometimes party-political cleavages too.

The ideological and political groups attacking a textbook, which “belongs” to the other ideological and political groups with the argumentation, that one or other political fact is not mentioned in the book, “a fact which would have changed the whole picture of the historical phenomena” To avoid these attacks the textbook writers write a lot of political facts, and chronological data into the textbooks, make this textbooks more objective but less learnable, and less modern, less similar to the western patterns.



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