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GCSE History Additional Exemplars for Controlled Assessment Topic Area 1

Contents
GCSE History

Exemplars for Controlled Assessment
Topic Area 1:

Political, social and economic developments in Wales and England in the nineteenth century and the twentieth centuries

This document contains the WJEC set controlled assessment exemplars for topic area 1 that are available for award up to 2014. This should be used alongside the general guide to controlled assessment available on the WJEC website.



Topic Area 1:

Political, social and economic developments in Wales and England in the nineteenth century and the twentieth centuries
Exemplar Tasks
1. The Rebecca Riots

2. Jack the Ripper’s London

3. Quarrying in North Wales

4. The Depression of the 1930s

5. Life in the 1960s


Introduction
Controlled Assessment is a compulsory unit for GCSE History.
Please note the following advice:
 These exemplars are written in a consistent style to ensure comparability of demand.

 These exemplars can be used for entry in any year of the current specification.

 Centres must change their controlled assessment tasks each year

 Centres must submit a proposal form for each two year cycle demonstrating to WJEC that they are using different tasks in consecutive years.

 Centres who are not studying any British history in their examined units must select controlled assessment tasks that focus on British history.

 Centres cannot mix and match parts (a) and (b) from different tasks.

 The controlled assessment unit can only be entered at the end of the course. Candidates must complete the controlled assessment tasks selected by the centre for that particular year.

 Centres are allowed to write their own controlled assessment tasks. This is called contextualisation. If this choice is made, the tasks must replicate the style of the exemplars entirely and approval must be gained from a WJEC consultative moderator.


Topic area 1
Political, social and economic developments in Wales and

England in the nineteenth century and twentieth century

Task 1: The Rebecca Riots


Controlled Assessment Task part (a)
There were many examples of rural protest in Wales and England in the nineteenth century. One of these was the Rebecca Riots.
Select any FIVE sources from your pack.
How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining why the Rebecca Riots were seen as a threat to society in the

mid-nineteenth century?


Controlled Assessment Task part (b)
Some people have the view that the Rebecca Riots were mainly caused by poverty and poor living conditions.
How far do your selected sources support or contradict

this interpretation?



CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK Part (a)
There were many examples of rural practices in Wales and England in the 19th century. One of these was the Rebecca Riots.
Select any FIVE sources from your pack
How useful and reliable are these sources in explaining

why the Rebecca Riots were seen as a threat to society in

the mid-nineteenth century?



Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task
How can part (a) be tackled?
Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (a) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.


  • A brief introduction

This needs to have a clear focus on the set question.

It needs to briefly set the issue in its historical context.

A short paragraph is sufficient here.


  • An evaluation of the selected evidence connected with the issue in the question set.

Here candidates can examine developments and issues, while making analysis and evaluation of the evidence selected. Candidates should evaluate up to five sources only, aiming to link the evidence to its use in the enquiry. Try to integrate the sources into a narrative of the events of the Rebecca Riots. Avoid a robotic trawl through the sources.
When looking at the evidence you should consider points such as:
What information does the source provide about …?

Does the source back up your knowledge about …?

Who was the author/maker?

When was the source written?

Why was it written?

Is there any doubt over the author/is she trustworthy?


It is recommended that the answer to part (a) should be about 800 words in total.
SOURCE A1
picture from illustrated london news
[An artist's impression of an attack by the Rebecca rioters, from a newspaper, The Illustrated London News. This drawing appeared alongside a report on the Rebecca Riots written by a journalist. (1839)]


SOURCE A2

The leaders of the mob were disfigured by painting their faces in various colours, wearing horse-hair beards and women's clothes. All the doors of all the houses in the neighbourhood were locked and the inhabitants locked within, not daring to exhibit a light in their window. The mob stopped all drovers coming in the direction of Carmarthen and levied a contribution from them, stating they had destroyed all the toll gates.



[From an article by a reporter writing in The Carmarthen Journal, a local newspaper which supported the authorities (16 December 1842)]


SOURCE A3





punch%20cartoon%202

[A cartoon showing Rebecca rioters attacking tollgates marked with the things they were angry about. The cartoon is from the satirical English magazine called Punch (1842)]


SOURCE A4


By 1843, Rebecca incidents had grown alarmingly across the whole of the West Wales area. The supporters of Rebecca felt strong enough to march in daylight to Carmarthen to present a petition to the Magistrates at the Guildhall. On 19th June, a crowd of 2,000 with Rebecca at the head surged into Carmarthen and were joined by many poor people of the town. They seemed to have persuaded the farmers to attack the hated workhouse and they arrived at the gates and demanded to be let in. The Master had little option but to open the gates to the yard and once inside, the rioters laid hold of the Matron, Mrs Evans, and took the keys to the workhouse from her. They then attacked the Master, broke up the contents of the workhouse and ordered the inmates outside. They were preparing to burn the workhouse when a rumour spread that soldiers were approaching. A troop of the 4th Light Dragoons had been sent from Cardiff to Carmarthen and when news reached them of the riot, they galloped to the scene as the workhouse was being attacked. The rioters panicked at the approach of the soldiers and ran away. In the stampede chase that followed around sixty rioters were seized by the troops.

[From a web page on an internet site concerned with genealogy and family history, www.glamorganfamilyhistory.co.uk (2003)]




SOURCE A5


About 9 o'clock he heard a man calling him out of bed, and Shoni Sgubor Fawr came into the room. He had a single barrelled gun in his hand. From fear he went with him and they went together to the mountain and there they met another party headed by Dai y Cantwr in a shawl and bonnet. They proceeded towards Pontyberem and went to Mr Newman's house, (the owner of Pontyberem Iron-works) where they made a great noise and fired several shots. Shoni said that Slocombe (a clerk in the employ of Mr Newman) must leave in a week, for no Englishman should manage in Wales any more. If he did not he would be killed and his house pulled down.

[Information provided to local magistrates about the activities of the Rebecca rioters by David Lewis of Trimsaran. Lewis was an informer used by the authorities. (26 September 1843)]



SOURCE A6

Looking downwards my friends and I saw the flashing of sunlight on a thin line of cavalry forcing their way up the hill and through the crowds. It was the reflection of sun rays from their swords and uniforms. In an instant we three rushed to a small side door opening on the road up to the Brewery; the lock was kicked off and, crossing the road, we leapt over a hedge and were safe. Scores followed us and took to flight immediately. Mike Bowen who had dressed up as Rebecca had entered the workhouse yard, but when the horsemen were coming up the hill he clapped his ‘curls’ in his hat, got out through the small side door and made off across the fields, leaving his horse behind him.

[Alcwyn Evans, a 15 year old who took part in the Carmarthen riots. He wrote about the Rebecca riots in the 1870s, gathering material from other eye-witnesses and written accounts. His work was not published, but three copies of his book remain in museums in Aberystwyth, Tenby and Carmarthen.]
SOURCE A7

Reverend Sir,

I with one of my daughters, have recently been on a journey to Aberaeron, and have heard a great deal about you, namely that you have built a schoolroom in the upper part of the parish, and that you have been very dishonest in the erection of it, and that you promised a free school for the people, but that you have converted it into a church, and that you get £80 a year for serving it. Now, if this is true, you must give the money back, every halfpenny of it, otherwise if you do not, I with 500 or 600 of my daughters will come and visit you, and destroy your property to five times the value of it, and make you a subject of scorn and reproach throughout the whole neighbourhood. You know that I am the foe of oppression.

Yours, Rebecca and her daughters

[A letter sent to the vicar of Llangrannog in Cardiganshire who had been forcing non-conformists in the area to give money towards setting up a local church school. (June 19th 1843)]



SOURCE A8
£500%20reward

[A poster issued by the authorities offering a reward for information following an attack by Rebecca Rioters (August 1843)]


SOURCE A9

Probably the greater portion of your life will be spent in a foreign land and how different will be your position then to what it is here. You will be compelled to work but will receive no payment for your labours except such food as will serve to support you. You will not be in name, but in reality, slaves. To that I must sentence you. The sentence of the court is that you John Jones will be transported beyond the seas for the term of your natural life, and that you David Davies be transported for twenty years.


[Part of the sentence passed on two of the Rebecca rioters by the judge at the Carmarthen Assizes (27 December 1843)]


SOURCE A10


The Rebecca Riots spread to many parts of West and Mid Wales. The number of people involved multiplied and the violence used by the rioters also grew. At times it must have seemed like the whole population of West Wales was in revolt. The government was alarmed enough to send down to West Wales a large number of soldiers to crush the riots. Later a Commission of Enquiry was set up to find out what the causes of these serious outbreaks were. Certainly the Rebecca Riots was one of the most serious threats to authority in the whole of the nineteenth century in Wales and England.

[David Egan, an historian writing in a text book for GCSE history students, People, Protest and Politics in nineteenth century Wales (1987)]




CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT TASK part (b)
Some people have the view that the Rebecca Riots were mainly caused by poverty and poor living conditions.
How far do your selected sources support or contradict

this interpretation?


Notes for teachers/candidates about approaching this task
Underneath is a suggested structure to approaching part (b) which should be accessible to most candidates following a GCSE History course. It is offered as guidance and should not be seen as a writing frame or the only or best way to tackle this exercise.


  • An introduction

This needs to have a clear focus on the set question and also needs to show an awareness of what an interpretation actually is.

It needs a clear reference to the different interpretations of the issue / topic.

There is a need to briefly set the issue in its historical context.

There is NO NEED to evaluate any sources or evidence in this part of the assignment.


  • A discussion / explanation of the first interpretation

There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.

There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.

There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed


There should be a clear statement of this interpretation.

There should be a clear attempt to explain how people who support this interpretation have arrived at their views.

There should be discussion of evidence which can be used to support this interpretation. Both content and attribution need to be addressed



  • Summary

There should be a final answer to the set question.

There should be a judgement reached as so which set of evidence is considered to have most validity in addressing the interpretation.


It is recommended that the answer to part (b) should be about 1200 words in total.
It is also recommended that candidates use no more than four sources from each section to explain how and why each interpretation has been arrived at.



SOURCES WHICH SUPPORT THE INTERPRETATION



SOURCE B1


It was in the winter of 1842 that the Rebecca riots broke out and their cause was undoubtedly poverty. It was distress and semi-starvation which led the country people to march under the banners of Rebecca. The attacks on the toll-gates were almost accidental.

[David Williams, an academic historian and university lecturer, writing in a specialist text book, The Rebecca Riots (1955)]




SOURCE B2

The main cause of the mischief is beyond doubt the poverty of the farmers. They have become thereby discontented at every tax and burden they have been called upon to pay. If to this can be added an unjust imposition [the tolls] you have the crowning climax, however trivial it may appear in itself, which has fanned this discontent into a flame. Agricultural labourers arrive at starvation point rather than apply for poor relief, knowing that if they do so they will be dragged into the Union Workhouse, where they will be placed themselves in one yard, their wives in another, their male children in a third and their daughters in a fourth. The bread which I saw in a Workhouse is made entirely of barley and is nearly black. It has a gritty and rather sour taste.



[Thomas Campbell Foster, a journalist sent to report on the Rebecca riots, writing in an article in the London newspaper, The Times

(26 June 1843)]

SOURCE B3
cottage
[A photograph showing living conditions in Cardiganshire in the mid-nineteenth century]

SOURCE B4

The small farmer here breakfasts on oatmeal and water boiled called 'duffey' or 'flummery' or on a few mashed potatoes. He dines on potatoes and buttermilk, with sometimes a little white Welsh cheese and barley bread, and as an occasional treat he has a salt herring. Fresh meat is never seen on the Farmer's table. He sups (has supper) on mashed potatoes. His butter he never tastes, beef or mutton never form the farmer's food. Labourers live entirely on potatoes, and have seldom enough of them, having only one meal a day.




[Thomas Campbell Foster, a journalist sent to report on the Rebecca riots, writing in an article in the London newspaper, The Times

(2 December 1843)]
SOURCE B5

Last time when I had the tithe to pay, I could only make up seven sovereigns (pounds). He (the landlord's agent) refused to take them and trust me for a week or two for the rest, till I could sell something. I have nursed sixteen children and never owed a farthing but we are worse off than ever. Yet my husband has not spent sixpence in beer these twenty years nor can I or the children go to church or chapel for want of decent clothing. We perhaps might have gone on but now this tithe comes so heavy.



[Mary Thomas of Llanelli, the wife of an agricultural labourer, giving evidence to the Commission of Inquiry into the causes of the Rebecca riots (1844)]




SOURCE B6

When I meet the lime-men on the road covered with sweat and dust, I know they are Rebeccaites. When I see the coalmen coming to town clothed in rags, hard-worked and hard-fed, I know they are mine, they are Rebecca’s children. When I see the farmers’ wives carrying loaded baskets to market, bending under the weight I know well that these are my daughters. If I turn into a farmer’s house and see them eating only barley bread and drinking whey, surely I say, these are members of my family, these are the oppressed sons and daughters of Rebecca.



[From a letter to the newspaper The Welshman received in September 1843. The letter was signed ‘Rebecca.’ The Welshman was a newspaper printed in Carmarthen which attacked the poverty and bad living conditions of local people.]



SOURCE B7

In the year 1840, which was a very wet summer, nearly all the farmers had to purchase corn, either for seed or bread. This distress has not been the result of one or two or three years but a series of at least twenty. The value of the farmer’s land and property has decreased in value while the rates, taxes, tithes and rent have been increased. This made the farmers very distressed.



[James Rogers of Carmarthen, a corn merchant, giving evidence to the Commission of Inquiry into the causes of the Rebecca riots (1844)]




SOURCE B8

Although most people connect the riots with attacks on toll-gates, there were many other causes for complaint which contributed to the violent outbreaks. The living and working conditions of the farmers of West Wales were the main source of discontent. The year before had seen prices of stock at sale falling as had harvest yields, only serving to increase local poverty. The introduction of the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834 had meant that the poor could only receive help (poor relief) if they entered a workhouse. The workhouse became a symbol of the awful poverty faced by many people in West Wales.




[From an educational website on the local history of Powys aimed at secondary school students, www.history.powys.org.uk (2008)]



SOURCES WHICH CHALLENGE THE INTERPRETATION


SOURCE B9

Tollgates were only the most common objects of popular hatred and resentment: workhouses were also attacked, as were weirs that restricted fishing. Farmers perceived a range of oppressors who, collectively, denied them justice: their unsympathetic, culturally alien landlords, who failed to grant them rent reductions; local magistrates, who treated the poor ‘like dogs’ when they came before the bench; masters of workhouses wherein the poor were locked up; tithe agents, bailiffs and Anglican clergymen who levied heavy tithes on a largely chapel-going population; and toll collectors.

[From an entry on the Rebecca riots in The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of WALES, published by University of Wales Press (2008)]

SOURCE B10

It appears to us generally that the chief grounds of complaint were the mismanagement of funds by the turnpike trusts businesses. Also causing great distress were the mount and the payment of tolls to use the roads and in some cases the conduct and attitude of the toll collectors and the illegal demands made by them.


[From the official report of the Commission of Inquiry set up to investigate into the causes of the Rebecca Riots. The report was presented to the government in 1844.]



SOURCE B11


The gentry held all the political power in West Wales. Ordinary people did not have the right to vote in elections at this time. Justices of the Peace (magistrates) were nearly always appointed from the ranks of the lesser gentry. The JPs had important responsibilities for law and order and for dealing with issues of poverty. Some of the magistrates in West Wales were corrupt and used their power for their own interest.



[David Egan, an historian and lecturer, writing in a GCSE history text book, People, Protest and Politics (1987)]





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