Connections 332 Witchcraft in Colonial New England

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Connections 332

Witchcraft in Colonial New England

TTh 2:00 to 3:20, Wyatt 209

Spring 2016
William Breitenbach Office: Wyatt 141

Office phone: 879-3167 Office hours:

E-mail: MWF 10:00 to 10:50

Web: TuTh 9:00 to 9:50

Catalogue description

This course will study witchcraft in colonial New England from a variety of disciplinary and methodological perspectives, drawing upon several of the best recent scholarly attempts to explain witchcraft and witch hunts. Students will examine religious, political, sociological, anthropological, psychological, medical, legal, feminist, and cinematic interpretations of witchcraft. In addition to evaluating these disciplinary approaches, students will analyze primary sources from selected witchcraft cases and use various methodologies to develop their own interpretations of those cases. This course satisfies the Connections core requirement.

Syllabus introduction

When I was in graduate school, I was a teaching assistant in the colonial American history course taught by the historian Edmund S. Morgan. In that course, Morgan distributed a 15-page bibliography on topics in early American history. For the section on New England witchcraft, he wrote, “This is probably the least instructive topic through which to approach Puritanism.” A decade later, when his own student, Carol F. Karlsen, published a path-breaking book on women and witchcraft, Morgan ruefully admitted that he had been wrong. During the past forty-five years, books and articles about witchcraft have revealed a great deal about New England and Puritanism. Indeed, virtually every major historiographical trend in early American studies has been displayed in recent work on witchcraft. In many cases, scholarship on witchcraft has driven these historiographical developments. There have been community studies, gender studies, anthropological studies, and psychological studies of witchcraft. There have been studies of witchcraft in relation to Puritan religion, popular culture, and folk traditions. There have been political histories, military histories, legal histories, medical histories, environmental histories, semiotic analyses, and geographies of witchcraft. There have been studies of New England witchcraft focusing on race and ethnicity. Nor is this scholarly outburst showing any signs of abating. The last thirty years have seen the publication of a score of major works on witchcraft, not to mention an unending stream of non-scholarly books aimed at a popular audience. In this course, you will have the opportunity to sample some of the best, most interesting, and most influential studies published during the past forty-five years. Along the way, you will join in the scholarly conversation by writing your own multi-disciplinary interpretations of witchcraft cases.

Learning objectives

  • To gain a general knowledge of 17th-century New England history and the significance of witchcraft and witch hunts in that history.

  • To develop a more sophisticated historical sense by investigating in a scholarly way a topic that is often treated today in an unhistorical and caricatured manner.

  • To develop an “understanding of the interrelationship of fields of knowledge by exploring connections and contrasts between various disciplines with respect to disciplinary methodology and [the] subject matter” of witchcraft (Connections core learning objectives).

  • To trace the unfolding scholarly debate on a well-defined subject and to begin to appreciate how the shifts in such a debate often involve the adoption of new methodologies by scholars.

  • To gain practical experience in evaluating and employing diverse disciplinary methodologies as ways to investigate and interpret a set of primary sources taken from a witchcraft case.

  • To improve skills in reading, analyzing, discussing, and writing about challenging primary and secondary sources.

Books (for sale at the Bookstore)

Readings Packet for Connections 332 (Spring 2016). Photocopied readings, hereafter “RP.”

Elaine G. Breslaw, ed., Witches of the Atlantic World: A Historical Reader and Primary Sourcebook (NYU Press, 2000). This anthology contains both original source documents from witchcraft cases and excerpts from significant modern secondary interpretations drawn from a variety of academic disciplines.

Chadwick Hansen, Witchcraft at Salem (George Braziller, 1969). One of the first books to challenge the popular view that the Salem witchcraft crisis was whipped up by fanatical Puritan ministers and attention-seeking, shamming girls, it also argues, more controversially, that there actually were practicing witches in seventeenth-century New England.

Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum, Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witchcraft (Harvard, 1974). This community study is one of the most influential books published in the last 40 years on the Salem Village crisis. Its use of sociological methodology (and some use of psychology) placed witch-hunting in the context of the social history of the small community of Salem Village. In so doing, it broke decisively with earlier sensationalistic popular treatments of Salem witchcraft.

John Putnam Demos, Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England, updated ed. (Oxford Univ. Press, 2004; orig. pub. 1982). In this study of non-Salem witchcraft cases, Demos deliberately and explicitly tries out four social science methodologies in order to explain accused witches, those who accused them, and the communities in which both lived. Each of the book’s four units contains two chapter-length case studies of specific witchcraft episodes and a concluding theoretical chapter about the social science methodology employed in that unit.

Mary Beth Norton, In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692 (Knopf, 2002). Norton interprets the crisis of 1692-93 in the context of regional political and military conflicts with the Indians of northern New England after 1675. She calls her book “a dual narrative of war and witchcraft.” Through a close examination of the trials, she shows that many accusers, accused, and judges had been deeply involved in Indian wars and trade.
Websites and Library Books. These can be useful for your papers.

Moodle website for Conn 332. Login at It has the syllabus, paper assignments, course readings, handouts, and links to other websites.

Famous American Trials: Salem Witchcraft 1692. Douglas Linder, Professor of Law, University of Missouri, Kansas City. This link will take you to the website for the Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692, where you’ll find primary source documents, secondary sources, a bibliography, and simulations and games.

Salem Witch Trials: Documentary Archive and Transcription Project. Benjamin C. Ray, project director. This website has documents, including trial transcripts, contemporary pamphlets, government records, maps, and links to archival materials.

Digital Witchcraft Collection. Click on “Resources” for an essay by Edward Peters with sections on Salem and secondary sources. Click on “Student Research” for papers written by the undergraduate students of Mary Beth Norton.

Salem Witchcraft Site. R. B. Latner. This website contains economic, geographical, and demographic databases. It can be especially useful for students who want to employ social science methodologies in their papers.

A Guide to the On-Line Primary Sources of the Salem Witch Trials. M. Burns, compiler. This is a portal to websites with primary sources.

Salem Witch Trials (1692). This website for genealogical research features a timeline, biographies, bibliography, and links.

David D. Hall, ed., Witch-Hunting in Seventeenth-Century New England: A Documentary History, 1638-1693 (Collins Library call number BF1575 W62). A book of primary sources.

Bernard Rosenthal, ed., Records of the Salem Witch-Hunt (KFM2478.8 W5 R43). Published 2009.

Richard Godbeer, ed., The Salem Witch Hunt: A Brief History with Documents (BF1576 G635). It has an introductory essay, a good selection of documents, and an up-to-date bibliography.

Brian P. Levack, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America (BF1571 O94 2013). It has longer scholarly essays on witchcraft in various nations.

William E. Burns, Witch Hunts in Europe and America: An Encyclopedia (Collins call number

Ref BF1584 E9 B87 2003; this book is shelved in the Reference Stacks).
Class participation

This will be a discussion class. That means everyone needs to show up on time, with the reading done and ideas to talk about. Always bring the day’s assigned readings so you can refer to particular passages during discussion. In class it’s your job to put your ideas out there for classmates to endorse, challenge, and transform. Give others the benefit of your disciplinary expertise. Be willing to ask questions, confess confusion, take a stand, and change your mind when presented with better evidence and reasoning. Listen attentively and respond respectfully to what your classmates have to say. Speaking directly to them (rather than through me) shows that you take them and their ideas seriously. Staring raptly at an electronic device throughout class without typing notes or looking up at speakers shows that you don’t.

Your regular attendance and informed participation will be important in determining both the success of the course and the grade you get in it. After every class, I’ll evaluate your contribution to other students’ learning. Students who make outstanding contributions will get a 4, those who contribute significantly will get a 3, those who attend and listen but say little will get a 2, those whose behavior makes it harder for themselves or others to learn (e.g., by arriving late, texting, erecting a laptop wall to shut out others, leaving the classroom, etc.) will get a 1, and those who miss class will get a 0. At the end of the semester, these daily scores will be used to calculate a participation grade, which will count for 20% of the course grade. I have adopted this system to get out of the unprofitable business of evaluating excuses of absentees and to get into the more rewarding business of evaluating contributions made by those who are present in the classroom. Hence in Conn 332 there are no excused or unexcused absences. If you miss a class, for whatever reason, the way to “make up” the absence is by speaking out and sharing your insights in those classes that you do attend.

When a student misses more than 20% of the classes (in this course, that’s 6 or more absences), I have qualms about putting a grade on a transcript testifying to the world that he or she has performed adequately in my course. In such cases, I may ask the Registrar to withdraw the student from the course, which will result in a grade of W or WF, depending on the time of the semester and/or the quality of the work that has been completed to that point.

Writing assignments

  • Six brief response papers on the day’s assigned readings (emailed to me before class or given to me at the start of class). Together, they will count for 20% of the course grade.

  • A midterm exam in class on Tuesday, February 23. It will count for 15% of the course grade.

  • A 6-7-page paper on the demonic possession or bewitchment of Elizabeth Knapp and/or the Goodwin children. It will be due at Wyatt 141 by 4:00 p.m. on Friday, March 25. It will count for 20% of the course grade.

  • A 10-page paper on the Salem witchcraft crisis. It will require some additional research and should employ two disciplinary methodologies to analyze and interpret the source materials. The paper, which substitutes for a final exam, will be due at Wyatt 141 by 4:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 12. It will count for 25% of the course grade.

Writing help

The Center for Writing and Learning is located in Howarth 109. Its mission is to help all writers, whatever their level of ability, become better writers. To make an appointment with a writing advisor, call 879-3404, email, or drop by Howarth 109.

Grading scale

Grade ranges are A (93-100), A- (90-92), B+ (87-89), B (83-86), B- (80-82), C+ (77-79), C (73-76), C- (70-72), D+ (67-69), D (63-66), D- (60-62), and F (below 60). I will round up to a higher letter grade when the numerical score is within 0.2 points of the cutoff (e.g., an 89.8 will be given an A-).
Paper and exam extensions, late work, and missing work

Normally I grant make-ups, extensions, or “Incomplete” grades only for weighty reasons like a family emergency or serious illness. But if you are facing any circumstances beyond your control that might prevent you from finishing a paper or taking an exam on time, ask me in advance of the deadline for an extension. (Extensions are prospective, not retroactive; that is, an extension granted after the deadline does not cancel the penalty that has already accrued.) If appropriate, provide documentation supporting your request from a medical professional; the Counseling, Health, and Wellness Services; the Academic Advising Office; the Dean of Students Office; or the Office of Student Accessibility and Accommodations.

Late papers should be emailed to me as Word documents at Late papers will be marked down 3.5 points on a 100-point scale (about ⅓ of a letter grade) if turned in during the first 24 hours after the deadline. If turned in during the second 24 hours, there will be an additional penalty of 6.5 points (about ⅔ of a letter grade). For each additional 24-hour period, the paper will lose 10 points (equivalent to a full letter grade), until the points reach 0.

Other policies

If you have a physical, psychological, medical or learning disability that may impact your course work, contact Peggy Perno, Director of Student Accessibility and Accommodations, at 105 Howarth Hall, 253-879-3395. She will determine with you what accommodations are necessary and appropriate, given the course objectives. All information and documentation are confidential.

Students who want to withdraw from the course should read the rules for withdrawal grades in the Academic Handbook (link provided below). Friday, April 1, is the last day to drop with an automatic W; thereafter it is much harder to avoid a WF. Students who abandon the course without officially withdrawing will receive a WF.

Students who cheat or plagiarize, help others do so, deface or steal library materials, or otherwise violate the university’s standards of academic integrity will receive an F for the course and will be reported to the Registrar. Before turning in your first paper read the section on “Academic Integrity” in the Academic Handbook (link provided below). Ignorance of the concept or consequences of plagiarism will not be accepted as an excuse.

In these and all other matters, I follow the policies in the current Academic Handbook at

Classroom Emergency Response Guidance

Please review university emergency preparedness and response procedures posted at  There is a link on the university home page.  Familiarize yourself with hall exit doors and the designated gathering area for your class buildings. 

If building evacuation becomes necessary (e.g., because of an earthquake), meet your instructor at the designated gathering area outdoors so she/he can account for your presence.  Then wait for further instructions.  Do not return to the building or classroom until advised by a university emergency response representative.

If confronted by an act of violence, be prepared to make quick decisions to protect your safety.  Flee the area by running away from the source of danger if you can safely do so.  If this is not possible, shelter in place by securing classroom doors and windows, closing blinds, and turning off room lights.  Lie on the floor out of sight and away from windows and doors.  Place cell phones or pagers on vibrate so that you can receive messages quietly.  Wait for further instructions.

My response-paper group is _______.
Reading assignments are to be completed before the class meeting for which they are listed. Plan on reading 3-4 hours for each class. Read the day’s assignments in the order they are listed. For some assignments, I have provided both Readings Packet page numbers and the corresponding page numbers of the original source. Pay attention to the “read only” pages specified in the syllabus. The letters “t,” “m,” and “b” after page numbers indicate the “top,” “middle,” and “bottom” of a page. Bring this syllabus and your copies of the day’s assigned readings to class.
1. Tues., Jan. 19: Introduction

Course syllabus; Connections core guidelines; map of New England

Video in class: “Days of Judgment” (Peabody Essex Museum, 1993), 50 mins. Take notes. (BF1576 D39 1993; cue at 1:45)
2. Thur., Jan. 21: Religion and Magic (45 pages)

RP: Brian P. Levack, The Witch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe (orig. pp. 1-20), RP 26-36

Breslaw: Jon Butler, 516-19b; Richard Godbeer, 132-42; Richard Weisman, 79-81, 85b-88; Reginald Scot, 28-31b, 35b-36
3. Tues., Jan. 26: Puritanism (55 pages) Group A

RP: Francis J. Bremer, The Puritan Experiment (orig. pp. 18-25m), RP 57-60

Breslaw: David D. Hall, 89-95

RP: David D. Hall, Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment (orig. pp. 166-96), RP 61-76

RP: John Winthrop, “A Model of Christian Charity,” RP 2

Breslaw: Matthew Hopkins, 37-41; Cotton Mather, 42-46
4. Thur., Jan. 28: Historians’ Interpretations of Witchcraft (40 pages) Group B

RP: Malcolm Gaskill, quotations from Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction, RP 37

RP: David D. Hall, “Witchcraft and the Limits of Interpretation,” New England Quarterly 58 (June 1984), (we’ll be reading this article in small chunks over several class sessions; for today read only orig. pp. 253-62b), RP 38-43

Breslaw: Norman Cohn, 49-52m; Keith Thomas, 60-71; Charles Upham, 430-36

RP: Charles Upham, “The Afflicted Girls Were Lying” (orig. pp. 36-43), RP 53-56
5. Tues., Feb. 2: Hysteria (75 pages) Group C

YouTube: “School Baffled by 12 Girls’ Mystery Symptoms,” Today Show, 17 Jan. 2012

YouTube: “Teen Girls’ Mystery Illness Now Has a Diagnosis: Mass Hysteria,” Today Health, 18 Jan. 2012

Hansen: ix-xv; 1-62 (Preface and chaps. 1-4)

Breslaw:Examination of Tituba,” 377-80; Deodat Lawson, 389-94

RP: Deodat Lawson, “Brief and True Narrative,” RP 7-8

OPTIONAL: If you want more on Le Roy, NY, see Susan Dominus, “What Happened to the Girls in Le Roy,” New York Times Magazine, 7 March 2012, on Moodle or at
6. Thur., Feb. 4: The Witch Hunt at Salem (95 pages) Group D

Hansen: 63-145 (chaps. 5-9)

RP: Peter Charles Hoffer, “Betty’s People,” The Devil’s Disciples, RP 209-13

RP: Bernard Rosenthal, “The Girls of Salem,” Salem Story, RP 214-21

Breslaw:Examination of Bridget Bishop,” 385-88; Deliverance Hobbs, 403-04; John Hale, 405-06
7. Tues., Feb. 9: The End of the Salem Witch Hunt (80 pages) Group A

Hansen: 146-227 (chaps. 10-14)
8. Thur., Feb. 11: A Factionalized Community (88 pages) Group B

RP: David D. Hall, “Witchcraft and the Limits of Interpretation,” New England Quarterly 58 (June 1985), (read only orig. pp. 263-66m), RP 43-45

Boyer & Nissenbaum: ix-xii, 1-79 (Preface, Prologue, and chaps. 1-3)
9. Tues., Feb. 16: Insiders and Outsiders (80 pages) Group C

Boyer & Nissenbaum: 80-152 (chaps. 4-6)

Breslaw: Examination of Rebecca Nurse,” 381-84; Abigail Williams, 400-01; Ann Putnam, Jr., 402
10. Thur., Feb. 18: Rev. Parris and Salem Village (77 pages) Group D

Boyer & Nissenbaum: 153-221 (chaps. 7-8 and Epilogue)

RP: Samuel Parris, “Christ Knows How Many Devils There Are,” RP 9-11

RP: Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum, “Salem Possessed in Retrospect,” William and Mary Quarterly 65 (July 2008) (read only orig. pp. 530-34), RP 77-79
11. Tues., Feb. 23: Midterm exam today (50 mins.)
12. Thur., Feb. 25: Witches Profiled (78 pages) Group A

RP: David D. Hall, “Witchcraft and the Limits of Interpretation,” New England Quarterly 58 (June 1985), (read only orig. pp. 266m-268t), RP 45-46

Demos: vii-xiv, 3-15, 36-94 (Prefaces, Introduction, chaps. 2 and 3)

RP: The Case against Sarah Good,” RP 3-6
13. Tues., Mar. 1: Witches and Their Communities (55 pages) Group B

Demos: 275-312 (chap. 9) and 239m-245 (end of chap. 7)

RP: Richard Weisman, “The Identification of the Malefic Witch,” Witchcraft, Magic, and Religion in 17th Century Massachusetts (orig. pp. 75-76m, 78m-79, 90b-95), RP 80-85

RP:The Case against Susannah Martin,” RP 12-18

14. Thur., Mar. 3: Which Women Were Witch Women? (45 pages) Group C

RP: David D. Hall, “Witchcraft and the Limits of Interpretation,” New England Quarterly 58 (June 1985), (read only orig. pp. 274-75), RP 49

Demos: 19-35 (chap. 1)

Breslaw: Carol F. Karlsen, 337-46 (also handouts of tables on pp. 102-03 of Karlsen’s book)

Moodle: Elspeth Whitney, “International Trends: The Witch ‘She’/The Historian ‘He’: Gender and the Historiography of the European Witch-Hunts,” Journal of Women’s History 7, no. 3 (Fall 1995): read only 77-86m
15. Tues., Mar. 8: Women Witches and Clergy Men (45 pages) Group D

RP: David D. Hall, “Witchcraft and the Limits of Interpretation,” New England Quarterly 58 (June 1985), (read only orig. pp. 276-81), RP 50-52

Moodle: Elspeth Whitney, “International Trends: The Witch ‘She’/The Historian ‘He’: Gender and the Historiography of the European Witch-Hunts,” Journal of Women’s History 7, no. 3 (Fall 1995): read only 86m-93

Breslaw: Breslaw, 283-86; Kramer and Sprenger, read only 291-92; Cotton Mather, 296-99; Samuel Willard, 300-02; Elizabeth Reis, 322-29; Jane Kamensky, 330-36
16. Thur., Mar. 10: The Possessed versus the Gender System (90 pages) Group A

Demos: 97-131 (chap. 4)

RP: Carol F. Karlsen, Devil in the Shape of a Woman (read only orig. pp. 222-51, 259-65), RP 86-100, 104-07

Breslaw: Breslaw, 229-32; Joseph Klaits, 259-66; Keith Thomas, 267-71
SPRING BREAK (March 14-18)
17. Tues., Mar. 22: Psychology and Witchcraft (40 pages) Group B

RP: David D. Hall, “Witchcraft and the Limits of Interpretation,” New England Quarterly 58 (June 1985), (read only orig. pp. 268m-74t), RP 46-49t

Breslaw: John Demos, 480-87

Demos: 157-65, 208-10 (parts of chap. 6)

RP: Lyndal Roper, “Witchcraft and Fantasy in Early Modern Germany,” History Workshop, no. 32 (Autumn 1991), (read only orig. pp. 21-23t, 37t-38, and endnote #77 on p. 43), RP 108-13

RP: David E. Stannard, “The Failure of Psychohistory” (orig. pp. 147-56), RP 114-20

18. Thur., Mar. 24: Ergotism (25 pages ) Group C

RP: Linnda R. Caporael, “Ergotism: The Satan Loosed in Salem?” Science 192 (April 2, 1976) (orig. pp. 21-26), RP 133-39

RP: Nicholas P. Spanos and Jack Gottlieb, “Ergotism and the Salem Village Witch Trials,” Science 194 (Dec. 24, 1976) (orig. pp. 1390-94), RP 140-45

Breslaw: Breslaw, 465-66; Mary K. Matossian, 467-71; H. Sidky, 472-79

RP: Deodat Lawson, “Brief and True Narrative,” RP 7-8
The first paper is due at Wyatt 141 by 4:00 pm on Friday, March 25.
19. Tues., Mar. 29: Nature and Native Peoples (65 pages) Group D

RP: Sam White, “‘Shewing the Difference’ . . . Weather, Prayer, and Magic,” William and Mary Quarterly 72, no. 1 (Jan. 2015) (read only orig. pp. 33-34t, 39m-56), RP 169-80

RP: Mark Fiege, “Satan in the Land: Nature, the Supernatural, and Disorder in Colonial New England,” The Republic of Nature (orig. pp. 9-11, 23-56), RP 146-68

Breslaw: Alfred Cave, 196-203; Richard Slotkin, 277-81
20. Thur., Mar. 31: Enemies Within and Without (55 pages) Group A

RP: John M. Murrin, “Coming to Terms with the Salem Witch Trials,” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 110, part 2 (Oct. 2000): (orig. pp. 321-25, 333-47), RP 181-91

RP: Christine Leigh Heyrman, “Specters of Subversion, Societies of Friends: Dissent and the Devil in Provincial Essex County, Massachusetts” (read orig. pp. 38-61b), RP 121-32

Breslaw: Elaine Breslaw, 444-53
21. Tues., Apr. 5: The Law and the Witch Trials (45 pages) Group B

RP: Bernard Rosenthal, “General Introduction,” Records of the Salem Witch-Hunt (orig. pp. 15-38t), RP 197-208

Breslaw: Michael Dalton, 365-68; William Perkins, 369-74

RP: David D. Hall, “Middle Ground on the Witch-Hunt Debate,” Reviews in American History 26 (June 1998): 345-52,, RP 192-96
22. Thur., Apr. 7: New England Beset (55 pages) Group C

Norton: 3-57 (Introduction, chaps. 1 and part of 2); read the endnotes in this book
23. Tues., Apr. 12: The Church Betrayed (50 pages) Group D

Norton: 57-81, 112-32 (parts of chaps. 2 and 4)

RP: “The Case against George Burroughs,” RP 19-23
24. Thur., Apr. 14: Accusations, Examinations, Incarcerations (60 pages) Group A

Norton: 132-93 (chaps. 4 and 5)
25. Tues., Apr. 19: Trying Times (60 pages) Group B

Norton: 194-251 (chaps. 6 and part of 7)

Breslaw:Advice of the Clergy,” 407-08

RP: The Confession of William Barker,” RP 24
26. Thur., Apr. 21: New Witch-Land (75 pages) Group C

Norton: 252-313 (chap. 8, Conclusion, Epilogue)

RP: Mary Easty, “Petition,” RP 25

Breslaw: Thomas Brattle, 411-19

RP: Carol Karlsen, review of In the Devil’s Snare, by Mary Beth Norton, Common-Place 3 (Jan. 2003), RP 222-26
27. Tues., Apr. 26: The Aftermath of the Salem Witch Hunt (50 pages) Group D

Video in class: Finish “Days of Judgment” (last 7 minutes; cue at 50:44 – 57:44)

Breslaw: Act against Conjuration, 495-96; Apology of Jury, 420-21; John Hale, 422-26

Breslaw: Larry Gragg, 454-63; Breslaw, 504b-506; Richard Weisman, 512-15

Demos: 387-400 (last part of chap. 12)

RP: Carol F. Karlsen, Devil in the Shape of a Woman (orig. pp. 253-57), RP 101-03

RP: Bernard Rosenthal, Salem Story (orig. pp. 204-212m), RP 227-31
28. Thur., Apr. 28: Video in class: The Crucible (dir. Nicholas Hytner, 1996; first 80 mins.)
29. Tues., May 3: Video in class: The Crucible (We’ll watch the remaining 44 mins.)

RP: Edmund S. Morgan, “Bewitched,” review of The Crucible, dir. Nicholas Hytner, New York Review of Books, Jan. 9, 1997, RP 232-37
The second paper is due at Wyatt 141 on Thursday, May 12, by 4:00 pm.


Learning Objectives

Students in Connections courses develop their understanding of the interrelationship of fields of knowledge by exploring connections and contrasts between various disciplines with respect to disciplinary methodology and subject matter.


Connections courses draw upon the curricula of either established disciplines or the University's interdisciplinary programs. These courses may involve the collaboration of faculty from more than one department or the efforts of individual faculty with interdisciplinary expertise and interests.

In the Connections course, students engage the interdisciplinary process by identifying multiple disciplinary approaches to a subject; analyzing the subject from these perspectives; participating in cross-disciplinary dialogue; and exploring the integration or synthesis of these approaches to foster understanding of the subject.

Connections courses explore these interdisciplinary issues at a level of sophistication expected of an upper division course. These courses may have appropriate prerequisites, so long as they do not unduly limit the audience in numbers or in level of disciplinary sophistication.

The Connections course must be taken at Puget Sound.

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