CHAPTER 5 STUDY GUIDE
CONCEPT A: MONASTICISM During the fourth century, people began retreating from the everyday world in order to pursue holiness, wrestle with their own "demons,' and find God through prayer and simple living. This movement became known as monasticism, and its followers shaped both the church and society. Antony of Egypt was sought out as a teacher and wise adviser; Basil developed a rule to guide monastic community life; and Jerome translated the Bible into Latin, the common language of most people in the West at the time. >Read pages 83-88 in your textbook
1. What is monasticism? What two forms of monasticism developed in early Christianity?
2. Explain what motivated the early monks and nuns to seek the monastic life.
3. What was Basil's contribution to monastic life?
4. What was the significance of the Latin Vulgate?
CONCEPT B: THE LEGACY OF AMBROSE AND AUGUSTINE Bishops Ambrose and Augustine developed theological traditions to guide the church and define its role in the world. Ambrose required Roman emperors to conform to the church, and he inspired Augustine to become a Christian. After a dissolute youth, Augustine converted to Christianity and clarified Catholic teachings about the sacraments and God's grace. Augustine's greatest work, The City of God, gave Christians hope in their mission, despite a crumbling empire. >Read pages 89-97 in your textbook 5. What was remarkable about the selection of Ambrose as bishop of Milan?
6. Describe one instance in which Ambrose stood up to imperial power.
7. Briefly trace the story of Augustine's conversion.
8. What did Augustine teach that refuted the Donatists' belief about the sacraments?
9. What was the Pelagians' belief about how human beings are saved? What was Augustine's response?
10. Explain Augustine's understanding of "the city of God" and "the city of Man."
CONCEPT C: THE RISING INFLUENCE OF THE PAPACY The fall of Rome in 410 and the decline of the Western empire created a leadership vacuum that the church soon filled. Pope Leo the Great established the papacy as a force for leadership in both church and state affairs. Twice Leo's peacemaking skills saved Rome from destruction, once by negotiating with Attila the Hun. The Council of Chalcedon reaffirmed Jesus as both human and divine, but it also made the patriarch of Constantinople second in church authority -- a decision that led to centuries of disputes and politicking. Read pages 98-101 in your textbook 11. What role for the papacy did Leo the Great create? Why was this role necessary?
12. What did the Council of Chalcedon state about Jesus?