Completes the statement or answers the question



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Ch. 3 Exam
Choose the answer that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. The country with the greatest number of people emigrating in the seventeenth century was

[A] Germany [B] France. [C] Ireland. [D] Spain. [E] England.


2. The typical English immigrant to the Americas was

[A] sponsored by the English government as part of an official plan for colonial expansion.

[B] a criminal sentenced to deportation.

[C] young.

[D] wealthy enough to afford the passage.

[E] all of these


3. The Pilgrims migrated to New England mainly in search of

[A] fertile land for farming. [B] employment. [C] political rights.

[D] religious freedom. [E] private economic gain.
4. Which of the following was not a Quaker belief?

[A] Individuals deserved recognition for their spiritual state rather than their wealth or family status.

[B] The Holy Spirit could inspire every soul.

[C] An individual’s personal opinions should not be mistaken for God’s will.

[D] Women and men were equal in their ability to understand the Inner Light.

[E] An individual’s Inner Light could best be revealed through the ceremony and music of a religious service.


5. Who was likely to have said the following, about whom? “Having gotten our land, they with scythes cut down the grass, and with axes fell the trees; their cows and horses eat the grass, and their hogs spoil our clam banks, and we shall all be starved.”

[A] William Bradford, about the Narragansett Indians

[B] a Barbados sugar planter, about pirates from the Bahamas

[C] a Narragansett sachem, about the English settlers

[D] William Penn, about his Swedish neighbors

[E] Nathaniel Bacon, about the Virginia tobacco farmers


6. How did colonial New England farmers alter their ecosystem?

[A] by introducing crop rotation and soil conservation techniques

[B] by ending the time-honored Indian practice of fencing the land, thereby allowing pigs and deer to roam freely

[C] by requiring that Native Americans live on reservations that would specialize in only one product

[D] by introducing the one-crop plantation system

[E] by clearing extensive stands of trees, introducing domestic livestock, and consolidating scattered parcels of land


7. Economic conditions in England in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries were marked by

[A] the bankruptcy of three-quarters of English merchants.

[B] depressions and unemployment.

[C] boom-bust cycles and inflation.

[D] high prices for agricultural products.

[E] increased demand for cloth because the Thirty Years’ War required Germany to import English cloth.

8. What was described as “a city upon a hill”?

[A] Plymouth, Massachusetts [B] Plymouth, England [C] London, England

[D] Massachusetts Bay colony [E] New London, Connecticut
9. Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts Bay colony advocated a social philosophy that emphasized

[A] social reciprocity. [B] equality between the sexes. [C] class struggle.

[D] survival of the fittest. [E] cradle to grave health coverage.
10. Harvard College was founded to train

[A] teachers. [B] ministers. [C] architects. [D] physicians. [E] lawyers.


11. All of the following were religious dissenters with the exception of

[A] Anne Hutchinson. [B] Roger Williams. [C] Thomas Hooker.

[D] John Cotton. [E] All were dissenters
12. The first colony in British America that separated church and state and practiced religious tolerance was

[A] Massachusetts. [B] Virginia. [C] Rhode Island. [D] New York. [E] Maryland.


13. What was the most fundamental threat to the Puritan social order?

[A] conversion [B] socialism [C] feminism [D] the market economy [E] theocracy


14. Which of the following epitomized the democratic nature of New England government?

[A] the church governing council [B] universal suffrage [C] the town meeting

[D] communal ownership of property [E] all of these
15. The first generation of New England land settlement was characterized by

[A] a few elite families acquiring rights to most of the property.

[B] households situated in the village, with farmland placed outside the village.

[C] communal ownership of property.

[D] farms scattered around the countryside, away from village centers.

[E] large cities connected by private stagecoach lines.


16. Puritan society was organized around

[A] the family. [B] public festivals such as Christmas. [C] a social hierarchy based on wealth.

[D] the individual. [E] a social hierarchy based on education.
17. New England wives

[A] were considered equal in authority to their husbands within the family.

[B] were legally protected against domestic violence and nonsupport.

[C] had extensive property rights under English Common Law.

[D] usually had children out of wedlock.

[E] were denied the option of divorce because it was prohibited by their Puritan faith.


18. Which statement best describes the demography of New England in the early seventeenth century?

[A] Rapid population growth in New England resulted more from immigration than from childbearing

[B] Population growth in New England was relatively slow compared with the population explosion England was experiencing.

[C] Because of the harsh North American environment, New Englanders had a shorter life span and raised fewer children to adulthood than people living in England.

[D] Because of better diets and the slow spread of infection, New Englanders had a longer life span and raised more children to adulthood than people living in England.

[E] none of these.


19. Early-seventeenth-century New Englanders depended primarily on which of the following for labor?

[A] indentured servants [B] hired laborers [C] slaves

[D] their children [E] Native Americans
20. The demise of Puritanism in New England was signaled by

[A] the unwillingness of second-generation Puritans to submit to the public conversion relation in order to become saints.

[B] the ascension of Oliver Cromwell as “Lord High Protector.”

[C] an influx of Irish-Catholic immigrants.

[D] the triumph of the Counter Reformation.

[E] all of these


21. The Half-Way Covenant was adopted because

[A] when they were half-way across the Atlantic, Puritans realized they needed a set of laws.

[B] Puritans wanted to justify enslavement of converted Indians and Africans.

[C] Puritans wanted to show Anglicans that they were willing to meet them half-way on resolving differences over religious doctrine.

[D] too few second- and third-generation Puritans were willing to testify publicly about their conversion experiences.

[E] Puritans believed that Native Americans were not capable of becoming fully Christian.


22. The Native American population in New England was reduced by all of the following factors except

[A] King Philip’s War.

[B] the Pequot War.

[C] enslavement of Indians to work on fishing vessels.

[D] the Thirty Years’ War.

[E] diseases introduced by Europeans.


23. The Puritan attitude toward converting Native Americans was

[A] to allow Indians to maintain their own cultural and religious beliefs.

[B] colored by the deep hatred that Europeans felt for the Indians, which caused the Puritans to avoid any contact with them.

[C] to organize “praying Indians” into “praying towns” where Indians were taught alien Puritan ways.

[D] to use force.

[E] to attract Indians to Puritanism by appealing to the Indians’ appreciation of ceremony while relating Puritan doctrine to Indian beliefs.


24. Late-seventeenth-century New England was characterized by

[A] a subsistence economy in which farmers and artisans produced their own necessities or bartered for them.

[B] a complex occupational structure.

[C] a population that was tightly clustered in town centers.

[D] the decline of the family farm.

[E] all of these


25. Conflict in Salem, Massachusetts, in the late seventeenth century arose between

[A] farmers and merchants. [B] farmers and ministers. [C] fishermen and merchants.

[D] artisans and sheep herders. [E] fishermen and sailors.
26. Those accused of witchcraft in the Salem trials

[A] were slaves.

[B] included both low-status individuals and prominent citizens.

[C] were young, troubled girls.

[D] tended to be women who had previously been in trouble with the law.

[E] were almost exclusively the poor and powerless in the community.


27. Those accused of witchcraft in the Salem trials

[A] were young, troubled girls.

[B] included mostly women and those who tended to be prominent citizens.

[C] tended to be women who had previously been in trouble with the law.

[D] were almost exclusively the poor and powerless in the community.

[E] were slaves.


28. All of the following were factors in the Salem witch trials except

[A] rivalry between two families, one still prominent and one that had lost prestige.

[B] conflict between communally oriented rural residents and individualistic urban residents.

[C] rapid growth that had destroyed the relative equality of fishermen and farmers.

[D] rising sinfulness as later generations abandoned the disciplined habits of the founding generation.

[E] displaced resentment that young girls felt toward their mothers and other older women.


29. In which of the following ways did the West Indies not influence British North America?

[A] New Englanders became acquainted with beliefs about witchcraft from Caribbean islanders.

[B] The Caribbean islands became the major market for New England’s surplus foodstuffs, dried fish, and lumber.

[C] The West Indies pioneered techniques of racial control that would later appear in the mainland colonies’ plantation societies.

[D] After 1660 a large outmigration of English islanders added significantly to British North America’s population.

[E] all of these.


30. During the seventeenth century the greatest extremes of inequality in landownership were found in

[A] the West Indies. [B] Virginia. [C] New York. [D] Maryland. [E] New England.


31. Why did the year 1663 mark a turning point for New France?

[A] France and England signed a peace treaty and became trading partners.

[B] The trading company that had founded the colony finally began to earn a profit.

[C] The Sieur de La Salle arrived and began converting the Indians to Christianity.

[D] The French crown took direct control of the colony.

[E] The English turned their attention southward and allowed the French colonists several generations of peace and security.


32. Which crop changed the British West Indies from a society of independent small landowners utilizing white servant labor to a society of large plantation owners utilizing black slave labor?

[A] wheat [B] tobacco [C] peanuts [D] cotton [E] sugar


33. Most people in the British West Indies in the early eighteenth century were

[A] Indian. [B] Asian. [C] black. [D] of mixed race. [E] white.


34. The county court system in Virginia

[A] was modeled after the court system in England.

[B] constructed and maintained roads, bridges, and public buildings.

[C] was undemocratic because the justices were appointed.

[D] had justices of the peace who acted like judges.

[E] all of these


35. By 1710 the basic unit of local government south of New England was

[A] the town meeting. [B] rule by a royal governor. [C] an unelected county court.

[D] an elected county court [E] a bicameral legislature.
36. Which of the following statements about Virginia is correct?

[A] The indentured servants’ chances of upward social mobility improved in the second half of the 1600s.

[B] By 1640 the great majority of its plantation laborers were African slaves.

[C] It was dominated by small farms and villages.

[D] Unlike Massachusetts, it had no established church.

[E] It was governed by an appointed royal governor and governor’s council and a House of Burgesses elected by landowners.


37. Religion in the Chesapeake region in the seventeenth century

[A] was virtually nonexistent.

[B] thrived because clergymen flocked to the area.

[C] was not as important a force as in New England.

[D] was a point of contention that was pulling Chesapeake society apart.

[E] was a driving force in cultural life.


38. Which colony was intended as a haven for Catholics in the seventeenth century?

[A] Massachusetts [B] Virginia [C] Maryland [D] Georgia [E] New York

39. The Act for Religious Toleration of 1649

[A] was passed to protect Puritans in Massachusetts from religious persecution and was America’s first law affirming freedom of worship.

[B] was passed to protect Catholics in Maryland from religious persecution and was America’s first law affirming freedom of worship.

[C] allowed Native Americans to perform their own religious rites in “praying towns.”

[D] was essential to the growth of the British West Indies because it promoted social stability.

[E] embodied the fundamental anti-authoritarian tenets of the Antinomians.


40. Which of the following characterized life in the Chesapeake region in the early seventeenth century?

[A] a plantation economy dominated by slave labor

[B] a relatively long life expectancy compared with that in the harsh environment of New England

[C] a population density which required residents to live in close proximity to neighbors

[D] rapidly developing urbanization

[E] the presence of many more men than women, giving women somewhat greater status because of their scarcity


41. Which of the following characterized life in the Chesapeake region in the early seventeenth century?

[A] a population density which required residents to live in close proximity to neighbors

[B] a relatively long life expectancy compared with that in the harsh environment of New England

[C] the presence of many more men than women, giving women somewhat greater status because of their scarcity

[D] rapidly developing urbanization

[E] a plantation economy dominated by an abundance of African slave labor


42. The economy in the Chesapeake in the second half of the seventeenth century

[A] boomed as tobacco prices skyrocketed.

[B] was in the midst of a transition from a plantation economy to a trading economy.

[C] was marked by depression as tobacco prices fell.

[D] remained stable because self-sufficient Chesapeake farmers concentrated on subsistence farming.

[E] was marked by boom-bust cycles linked to fluctuations in the price of cotton.


43. Bacon’s Rebellion stemmed from violent attacks of

[A] poor white settlers against Native Americans.

[B] Native Americans against Protestant missionaries.

[C] black slaves against plantation owners.

[D] Protestants against wealthy Catholics.

[E] white indentured servants against plantation owners.


44. Class tension in the Chesapeake lessened after 1690 because

[A] poor whites shared a common interest with upper-class whites in maintaining social control over Native Americans.

[B] more land became available to small farmers.

[C] poor whites shared a common interest with upper-class whites in maintaining social control over blacks.

[D] an influx of Native Americans solved the labor shortage.

[E] the rise in tobacco prices allowed small farmers a better standard of living.


45. Seventeenth-century New England and the West Indies

[A] had virtually nothing to do with each other because the vast distance between them prohibited economic or cultural exchange.

[B] were mirror images in every way except social structure.

[C] were interdependent because the sugar islands could not feed themselves or supply their own lumber, and New England relied on the Caribbean to purchase its surpluses.

[D] were interdependent because New Englanders used the Caribbean as a “safety valve” for excess population in search of farmland.

[E] were interdependent because New England’s short growing season required the importation of food from the Caribbean islands.
46. A man’s right to vote for governor and members of the General Court in seventeenth-century Massachusetts was based on

[A] wealth. [B] length of residence in America. [C] land ownership.

[D] his ancestry. [E] church membership.
47. The siege of Santa Fe

[A] led to the defeat of the Taos Indians.

[B] was one battle in the continuing war between the Taos and Apache Indians.

[C] brought the Spanish into a head-on collision with the French over control of New Mexico’s capital, Santa Fe.

[D] was the first in a long series of battles between the Taos Indians and the Spanish.

[E] marked the end of the Spanish empire and the beginning of French predominance.


48. The main purpose of France’s North American empire was to

[A] provide a location for French Protestants to worship without fear of persecution.

[B] pressure the British into ending their expansion.

[C] support trade with the Indians for furs.

[D] block attempts by the Dutch to gain a monopoly of the sugar trade.

[E] convert native Americans to Christianity.


49. What was the most important factor in France’s ability to hold its vast North American domain against Spanish and English expansion?

[A] technological superiority

[B] the construction of fortified missions by the coureurs de bois

[C] the presence of a large and expensive French army

[D] good relations with the Native Americans

[E] the establishment of thriving and stable communities throughout New France


50. In the late seventeenth century, the Spanish neglected Texas because

[A] Spanish missionaries were preoccupied with California.

[B] an Indian revolt posed a serious threat to Spanish rule in New Mexico.

[C] the French were already firmly in control of the area.

[D] Spain and England were engaged in a series of bloody European wars.

[E] Texas was believed to be a malarial swamp.


51. Spanish colonization of the borderlands depended mainly on the efforts of

[A] Catholic missionaries. [B] Spanish military forces. [C] fur traders.

[D] farmers. [E] cattle herders.


52. During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, how did native Americans fare in Spain’s American territories?

[A] Spanish colonial administrators enslaved Native Americans to work in silver mines.

[B] Mission life helped them to keep together and preserve their traditional work habits and language.

[C] Spanish soldiers slaughtered Native Americans whenever they resisted the efforts of missionaries.

[D] Because they were exposed to Old World diseases, they fell victim to terrible epidemics.

[E] all of these


53. Which of the following statements accurately compares the French and Spanish colonists’ relations with Native Americans with those of the British colonists by the eighteenth century?

[A] Spanish and French colonies were spread thin and depended on Indian goodwill, while the English colonies were compact, expansionist, and antagonistic toward Native Americans.

[B] English settlers had strong religious convictions and therefore cultivated Indian goodwill, while French and Spanish settlers attempted to exterminate Native Americans.

[C] The Spanish, French, and English colonies all had antagonistic relations with Native Americans.

[D] Spanish and French colonies were concentrated in strategic missions or trading posts to fight the Indians, while the English colonists ranged throughout eastern North America and enjoyed cordial relations with Indians.

[E] There were few significant differences. French, Spanish, and British actions all resulted in the destruction of Native American culture.

Reference: [4.20]

[1] [E]


Reference: [4.21]

[2] [C]


Reference: [4.22]

[3] [C]


Reference: [4.23]

[4] [E]


Reference: [4.24]

[5] [C]


Reference: [4.25]

[6] [E]


Reference: [4.27]

[7] [B]


Reference: [4.28]

[8] [D]


Reference: [4.29]

[9] [A]


Reference: [4.30]

[10] [B]


Reference: [4.31]

[11] [D]


Reference: [4.32]

[12] [C]


Reference: [4.33]

[13] [D]


Reference: [4.34]

[14] [C]


Reference: [4.35]

[15] [B]


Reference: [4.36]

[16] [A]


Reference: [4.37]

[17] [B]


Reference: [4.38]

[18] [D]


Reference: [4.39]

[19] [D]


Reference: [4.40]

[20] [A]


Reference: [4.41]

[21] [D]


Reference: [4.42]

[22] [D]


Reference: [4.43]

[23] [C]


Reference: [4.44]

[24] [B]


Reference: [4.45]

[25] [A]


Reference: [4.46]

[26] [B]


Reference: [4.46a]

[27] [B]


Reference: [4.47]

[28] [D]


Reference: [4.48]

[29] [A]


Reference: [4.49]

[30] [A]


Reference: [4.50]

[31] [D]


Reference: [4.51]

[32] [E]


Reference: [4.52]

[33] [C]


Reference: [4.53]

[34] [E]


Reference: [4.54]

[35] [C]


Reference: [4.55]

[36] [E]

Reference: [4.56]

[37] [C]


Reference: [4.57]

[38] [C]


Reference: [4.58]

[39] [B]


Reference: [4.59]

[40] [E]


Reference: [4.59a]

[41] [C]


Reference: [4.60]

[42] [C]


Reference: [4.61]

[43] [A]


Reference: [4.62]

[44] [C]


Reference: [4.63]

[45] [C]


Reference: [4.64]

[46] [E]


Reference: [4.65]

[47] [D]


Reference: [4.66]

[48] [C]


Reference: [4.67]

[49] [D]


Reference: [4.68]

[50] [B]


Reference: [4.69]

[51] [A]


Reference: [4.70]

[52] [D]


Reference: [4.71]

[53] [A]


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