|COMPENDIUM OF FOOD SECURITY ISSUES DISCUSSED WITHIN G20 FORUM
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 2
POLICY DECISIONS 4
London, 2009 4
Pittsburg, 2009 5
Toronto, 2010 6
Seoul, 2010 7
Cannes, 2011 8
Los Cabos, 2012 10
COMMITMENTS by G20 MEMBERS 13
Toronto, 2010 13
Seoul, 2010 13
Cannes, 2011 14
Los Cabos, 2012 14
London, 2009 15
Pittsburg, 2009 16
Cannes, 2011 22
Los Cabos, 2012 27
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
AFSI – L’Aquila Food Security Initiative
AMC - Advanced Market Commitment
AMIS - Agricultural Market Information System
CAADP - Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program
CARD - Coalition for African Rice Development
CGIAR - Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
DMC - Developing Member Country
ECOWAS - Economic Community of Western African States
FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FY – Fiscal Year
GAFSP - Global Agriculture and Food Security Program
GCARD - Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development
GEOGLAM - Global Agricultural Geo-Monitoring Initiative
GFRP - Global Food Crisis Response Program
GRiSP - Global Rice Science Partnership
IBRD – International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
IDA - International Development Association
IFAD - International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC – International Finance Corporation
IOSCO - International Organization of Securities Commissions
IRIWI - International Research Initiative for Wheat Improvement
IRRI - International Rice Research Institute
LDCs - Least Developed Countries
LICs – Low-income countries
MACS - Meeting of Agriculture Chief Scientists
MDB - Multilateral Development Banks
MICs – Middle-income countries
NGO - Non-Governmental Organization
PRAI - Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment
RSR - Rapid Social Response Program
SUN - Scaling Up Nutrition movement
TAP - Tropical Agriculture Platform
UN – United Nations
VFF - Vulnerability Financial Facility
WFP - World Food Program
In June 2008, in response to the food crisis, President Nicolas Sarkozy launched the idea of a "Global Partnership for Agriculture, Food Security and Nutrition". This Partnership is based on three objectives:
Governance, to ensure the coherence of policies impacting food security;
Knowledge, to mobilize expertise and research on behalf of food security;
Finance, to reverse the downward trend in financing for food security.
President Sarkozy's initiative placed food security at the top of the international agenda. Other countries have joined this initiative at the G8 Summit held in L'Aquila (July 2009), the G20 Summit held in Pittsburgh (September 2009), and the Rome World Summit on Food security (November 2009). The G8 and the other countries of the L'Aquila Food Security Initiative committed to raise over $20 billion for food security.
The current material was prepared based on the official documents presented at the G20 Leaders Summits starting from London, 2009 to Los Cabos, 2012. It summarizes forum member’s policy decisions, commitments and initiatives on food security issues. It also includes description of the most G20 initiatives related to food security.
Compendium may be of interest to experts working on development and food security issues.
Ensuring a fair and sustainable recovery for all
In the London Declaration G20 Leaders agreed to make available resources for social protection for the poorest countries, including through investing in long-term food security and through voluntary bilateral contributions to the World Bank’s Vulnerability Framework, including the Infrastructure Crisis Facility, and the Rapid Social Response Fund.
Leaders called on the UN, working with other global institutions, to establish an effective mechanism to monitor the impact of the crisis on the poorest and most vulnerable.
The World Bank Group’s Response to Global Crises
Vulnerability Financial Facility (VFF)
The VFF is a mechanism to support the poor and vulnerable in LICs and MICs (IDA and IBRD eligible). The VFF channels funds through the Global Food Crisis Response Program (GFRP) and the new Rapid Social Response Program (RSR). The VFF programs are targeted towards two key areas of vulnerability to crisis: i) agriculture, which is the main livelihood for over 75% of the world’s poor; ii) employment, safety nets and protection of basic social services. VFF operations are designed to be delivered faster than standard IDA and IBRD programs, with rapid project preparation, processing and disbursement characteristics. For example, in FY 08/09, GFRP loans were processed on average in under two months, and to-date disbursement rates have been very high. Furthermore, both the GFRP and RSR emphasize co-financing, adding donor funds to IDA or IBRD resources.
Global Food Crisis Response Program (GFRP)
The GFRP was launched in May 2008 to provide immediate relief to countries hard hit by high food prices. In April 2009, the GFRP was increased from $1.2 US billion (of which $200 US million was grants) to $2 US billion. In addition to this, $200 US million has been provided through Trust Funds.
The objectives of the fund are to i) decrease the negative impact of the high and volatile food prices on the poor; ii) support governments in the design of sustainable policies that mitigate the adverse impacts of the food prices; iii) support broad-based growth in productivity and market participation in agriculture.
By June 2009, the GFRP had disbursed $757.6 US million out of $1,151 US million in 33 countries, with an additional $49.4 US million earmarked for programs in 9 countries. The following LICs have received funds from the GFRP: Afghanistan ($8 US million), Bangladesh ($130 US million), Benin ($9 US million), Burundi ($10 US million), Central African Republic ($7 US million), Ethiopia ($275 US million), Guinea ($10 US million), Guinea-Bissau ($5 US million), Haiti ($10 US million), Kenya ($50 US million; $5 US million), Kyrgyz Republic ($10 US million), Laos ($3 US million), Liberia ($10 US million), Madagascar ($10 US million; $12 US million), Mali ($5 US million), Mozambique ($20 US million), Nepal ($36 US million), Niger ($7 US million), Rwanda ($10 US million), Senegal ($10 US million), Sierra Leone ($7 US million), Somalia ($7 US million), Tanzania ($220 US million), Tajikistan ($9 US million), Togo ($7 US million), Yemen ($10 US million).
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