Common Technology Words and Definitions: 802. 11



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Common Technology Words and Definitions:
802.11

IEEE standard that specifies medium-access and physical-layer specifications for 1Mbps and 2Mbps wireless connectivity between fixed, portable, and moving stations within a local area.


802.11a

The IEEE standard that governs the deployment of 5GHz OFDM systems. It specifies the implementation of the physical layer for wireless UNII b.


802.11b

An international IEEE standard for WLAN networks, operating at 2.4GHz and providing a maximum data transfer rate of 11Mbps.


802.11g

A proposed standard that describes a wireless networking method for a WLAN that operates in the 2.4GHz radio band (ISM: Industrial Scientific Medical frequency band). It transfers data at up to 54Mbps.


ANSI

American National Standards Institute. The principle group in the U.S. for defining standards.


ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange, a code that makes it possible to send information from one computer to another.


ATA

Advanced Technology Attachment is a disk drive implementation that integrates the controller on the disk drive itself


Animation

A special type of image that can store multiple images in a single file and produce the illusion of movement.


Applet

A small application that can enhance the look of or add functionality to a web page.


Binary file

A file the computer can read consisting of characters that describe an image, document, or application.




BIOS

Basic Input/Output System. Also known as System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS. The fundamental purposes of the BIOS are to initialize and test the system hardware components, and to load a bootloader or an operating system from a mass memory device.


Bit

Is the smallest unit of information a computer can process. A byte is one number, letter or symbol. One byte = 8 bits.


Blade Server

A blade server is a computer system on a motherboard, which includes processor(s), memory, a network connection, and sometimes storage. The blade idea is intended to address the needs of large-scale computing centers to reduce space requirements for application servers and lower costs.


Bluetooth

A technology that allows voice and data connections between a wide range of mobile and stationary devices through short-range digital two-way radio. For instance, it specifies how mobile phones, Wireless Information Devices (WIDs), computers and PDAs interconnect with each other, with computers, and with office or home phones.


Broadband

A transmission medium with enough bandwidth to carry multiple voice, video, or data channels simultaneously.


BMP

Bitmap raster graphics image file format


Browser

Is the program that lets you view pages on the Internet. Examples are Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox.


Cache

A set of files saved on your hard disk that help your browser display pages you have already visited more quickly. It displays the files from your hard disk instead of the Web.


Compression

Reduces the size of a file by changing its format.


Cookie

A text file on your hard disk that Web sites use to store information about you (that you have entered into your computer and are willing to share).



CD-ROM

Stands for compact disk read only memory. CD ROM’s are a storage device.


CD-R

Compact Disc Recordable CD-R retains a high level of compatibility with standard CD readers - unlike CD-RW, which can be re-written but is not capable of playing on many readers.


CD-RW

Compact Disc Re-Writable. CD-RWs cannot be read in some CD-ROM drives built prior to 1997. CD-ROM drives will bear a "MultiRead" certification to show compatibility. CD-RW discs need to be blanked before reuse.


CMYK

Are the colors used in process printing made up of Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black.


CPU

This is the central processing unit in your computer. It’s the brains of the machine.


Decompression

Restores a compressed file to its original format.


Devices

Input devices include things like microphones, keyboards, mouse, touchpads, wheels, joysticks, etc. Output devices include printers, monitors, projectors and speakers.


DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. is a standardized networking protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically distributing network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses for interfaces and services


DLL

Dynamic Link Library is Microsoft's implementation of the shared library concept in the Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems. These libraries usually have the file extension DLL, OCX (for libraries containing ActiveX controls), or DRV (for legacy system drivers).


DNS

Domain Name System


Docking station:

Docking station or port replicator or dock provides a simplified way of "plugging-in" an electronic device such as a laptop computer to common peripherals.




Domain name

The unique name of the server and a suffix (top level domain) that identifies the location of the server and/or the type of organization.


Download

To copy a file from the Internet to your computer.


DVD

Digital Versatile Disc


DVD+R

Digital Versatile Disc Recordable


DVD+RW

Digital Versatile Disk Rewritable


DVD-R

Digital Versatile Disc Recordable


DVD-RAM

Digital Versatile Disc Random Access Memory


DVD-RW

Digital Versatile Disk Rewritable


DVI

Digital Video Interface is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source to a display device, such as a computer monitor. It was developed with the intention of creating an industry standard for the transfer of digital video content.


E-mail

Electronic mail.


E-mail address

The address of your electronic mailbox.


Embed

An object (picture, graph, or document) is inserted into a file (the destination file). Once embedded, the object becomes part of the destination file. If you double-click on an embedded object, it opens in the program (source program) it was created in.




File name extension

The suffix that follow a period in a file name and tells the computer the file’s format or type. For example .doc is a Word document, .gif is an image, .html is a web page file.



Firewall

A security system that stops computers on one network from accessing computers on another network


Firewire

Apple Computer trademarked name for the IEEE 1394 serial interface standard: A high-speed interface between computers and peripherals such as external disk drives, cameras, and camcorders. Also referred to by Sony trademarked name, "I-Link."


FTP

File Transfer Protocol, a protocol used for copying files to and from a computer to the Internet.


GHz

Gigahertz One GHz represents 1 billion cycles per second. The speed of microprocessors, called the clock speed, often is measured in gigahertz. For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 GHz executes 200 billion cycles per second.


Gif

Graphic Interchange Format, a file format commonly used for bitmap images on the Internet.


Gigabyte(GB)

= 1,024 megabytes


GUI

Graphical User Interface


GUID

Globally Unique Identifier is a unique reference number used as an identifier in computer software


Hardware

Refers to the “hard” parts of the computer i.e. the CPU, monitor, keyboard, mouse, etc.


HDD

Hard Disk Drive is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.




HDMI

High-Definition Multimedia Interface is a compact audio/video interface for transferring uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from a HDMI-compliant source device to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device.


Home page

The Web page that serves as a starting point for a web site and usually contains the table of contents for the site.


HTML

Hypertext Markup Language, a language used for creating documents for the World Wide Web.


HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol, a protocol used for sharing HTML documents and other files on the World Wide Web.


Icon

Icon is a Greek word that means image and refers to the small pictures on your desktop that identify files, hard drive etc.


Inkjet Printer

Is a type of printer that transfers images and text onto paper using a combination of colors of sprayed ink.


Internet

The network of millions of connected computers around the world.


iSCSI

Internet Small Computer Systems Interface is an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities


ISO

International Organization for Standardization


ISP

Internet Service Provider, is a company that provides connections to the Internet.


Java

A programming language, developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. Applications written in Java are platform-independent, which means they can run on any type of computer. Developers often use Java to create applets.



Jazz disk

Is a large storage disk that holds up to 2 Gigabytes of Data and is used in a Jazz drive.


Jpg or Jpeg

Joint Photographic Experts Group, a file format commonly used for storing continuous-tone images, such as photographs, in a compressed format.


Keyboard

An input device that allows you to enter information into your computer.


LAN

Local Area Network and refers to computers connected to each other in an office, school or small area.


Laser printer

A laser printer uses a laser light to scan an image. It then attracts toner powder to it and the image is transferred to paper and fixed by heat.


Link

An image or special text that enables you to jump from one HTML document to another, to jump to another location in the same HTML document, or to download files from the Internet to your computer.


MAC Address

Media Access Control Address (maca, MAC): A hardware address that uniquely identifies each node of a network, as in IEEE-802 (Ethernet) networks. The MAC layer interfaces directly with the network medium.


MacBinary

A method of encoding and decoding Macintosh files so they can travel over networks without losing information.


Megabyte

= 1,024 kilobytes


MIMO

A Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) system has multiple antennas and multiple radios. It takes advantage of multipath effects, where a transmitted signal arrives at the receiver through a number of different paths. Each path can have a different time delay, and the result is that multiple instances of a single transmitted symbol arrive at the receiver at different times.

MIMO is used in the implementation of the 802.11n standard.
Monitor

the screen of your computer that lets you view your documents


mp3

Is a file format for audio files like digital music files.


NetBIOS

Network Basic Input/Output System. It provides services related to the session layer of the OSI model allowing applications on separate computers to communicate over a local area network


NIC

Network Interface Card


Offline

Not connected to the Internet or to another network.


Online

Means you are connected to the Internet or to another LAN or WAN.


Pixel

A pixel (dot) is the smallest dot of a picture on your computer and is called resolution. Resolution is the number of dots per inch in a picture/image. Minimum resolution for the

Internet is 72dpi and for offset printing 240dpi.
Platform

Is used to identify if your computer is IBM compatible, Apple or another platform.


Plug-in

A small application that adds functionality to a larger application. For example Apple QuickTime.


PC

Is short for personal computer and often refers to IBM compatible computers.


PCI

Peripheral Component Interconnect. A standard interface used primarily on computer backplanes to connect interface cards and peripheral devices to the processor bus. PCI is often used for video display cards, network interfaces (e.g. Ethernet), and peripheral interfaces such as SCSI or USB.

PCI buses typically also support the older Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) standard.

PNG

Portable Network Graphics, a file format commonly used for transmitting bitmap images on the Internet because its file size is small.


Protocol

A set of rules and standards for sharing information between computers.


Refresh/Reload

To reload or update the contents of the current Web page in your Web browser.


RAID

Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A redundant array of inexpensive disks. RAID is a performance-enhancing method of storing the same data in different places on multiple hard disks to achieve speed and/or data redundancy.


RAM

Random Access Memory provides space for your computer to read and write data so that the CPU can find it quickly and easily. When people refer to memory upgrades they are usually talking about RAM


ROM

Random Operating Memory refers to computer memory chips where information is stored (disk storage)


RTF

Rich Text Format


SATA

Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives.


Scanner

Is used to take an electronic picture of something that your computer can then use


SCSI

Small Computer System Interface (pronounced "scuzzy"), an interface standard for connecting peripheral devices to computers. Hardware components for implementing a SCSI interface include connector ports on computers and cables for connecting peripheral devices to the computer. SCSI is gradually being supplanted by the newer USB and IEEE 1341 standards.


Site

Means web site



SSD

Solid State Drive or circuit is one that relies on semiconductors rather than mechanical or vacuum tube circuits.


SSH

Secure Shell. is a cryptographic network protocol for secure data communication, remote command-line login, remote command execution, and other secure network services between two networked computers. It connects, via a secure channel over an insecure network, a server and a client running SSH server and SSH client programs, respectively.


Style sheet

A list of formatting commands, such as font/character, paragraph, and layout (document, margins) attributes, used by Web pages and in some other applications.


Software

Programs or applications your computer operates. Examples are AppleWorks, Word, PowerPoint, etc.


Terabyte

= to 1,000 gigabytes. Often used to measure the storage capacity of large storage devices


TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: The protocols or conventions that computers use to communicate over the Internet.


TIFF

Tagged Image File Format. A computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry,[1] and both amateur and professional photographers in general.


URL

Uniform Resource Locator that identifies the location of a web page on the Internet


USB

Universal Serial Bus. A standard port that enables you to connect external devices (such as digital cameras, scanners, keyboards, and mice) to computers. The USB standard supports data transfer at three rates: low speed (1.5MBps), full speed (12Mbps) and high speed (480 MBps).


Virus

Is a file that can cause damage to or interrupt the use of your computer. These are usually sent as email attachments or downloaded from a web page.




VGA

Video Graphics Array. refers specifically to the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987,[1] but through its widespread adoption has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector or the 640x480 resolution itself.


VPN

Virtual Private Network is a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network.


VPro

is an umbrella marketing term nowadays used by Intel for a large collection of computer hardware technologies including Hyperthreading, Turbo Boost 2.0, VT-x, Trusted Execution Technology, and Intel Active Management Technology (AMT).[1] When the vPro brand was launched however (circa 2007), it was mostly identified with AMT,[2][3] and some journalists today still consider AMT to be the essence of vPro.[4]


Web site

A collection of Web pages.


WAN

Wide Area Network. Any Internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building.


X86

is a family of backward compatible instruction set architectures[a] based on the Intel 8086 CPU. The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit based 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address. The term "x86" came to being because the names of several successors to the Intel's 8086 processor ended in "86", including 80186, 80286, 80386 and 80486 processors.


X64

is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set. It supports vastly larger amounts of virtual memory and physical memory than is possible on its predecessors, allowing programs to store larger amounts of data in memory.
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