Belang van feesten. Symbool van eenheid (pan=alle). De Panatheneeën was het grootste offerfeest ter ere van de stadsgodin Athena dat plaatsvond voor haar tempel, het Parthenon, op de arcopolis. Normaal duurde het feest twee dagen. Om de 4 jaar duurde het feest echter 4 dagen (=de Grote Panatheneeën). De Panatheneeën begonnen met wedstrijden van de atleten, zangers(in het Odeion) en dichters.
Fragment uit fries Parthenon
Het hoogtepunt van het feest bestond uit de grote processie, die zich vanaf de Heilige Poort dwars over de agora naar de acropolis begaf.
Normale Atheense straten waren 3 meter breed, de Panatheneeënweg 12 meter breed!
Bij de acropolis(alleen de oorspronkelijke bevolking mocht acropolis binnen) werd het verjaardagsgeschenk van de stad aan de priesters van de godin overhandigd. Het was een gewaad (peplos) voor haar standbeeld in de tempel dat door uitverkoren meisjes gedurende maandenlange arbeid geborduurd was. Fakkellopers (fakkelwedloop ’s nachts)brachten het heilige vuur en staken hout voor de altaren op de Acropolis in brand. Vervolgens werden zoveel dieren geslacht, dat de hele stadsbevolking te eten had. Omwille van de hoeveelheid offerdieren noemden de Atheners de geboortemaand van AThena (juli/augustus) “grote offermaand”.
Volgens bepaalde bronnen trok men een boot door de grote Panatheneeënweg, de mast was de nieuwe peplos voor Athena.
Standbeeld van Athena. Zou 12 meter hoog geweest zijn, gemaakt uit hout, ivoor en goud (100kg). Voor het beeld bevond zich een fontein voor de reflectie(en het vochtig houden van het ivoor). Phidias maakte ook dit beeld (net als beeld van Zeus in Olympia en het vele beeldhouwwerk van het parthenon). Hij werd betaald door Pericles (met het geld uit de Delisch-Attische Zeebond kas dat een tijdje bewaard werd in het Parthenon).
Balkon om het standbeeld van dichtbij te bewonderen.
1. Fountain House2. South Stoa3. Prison4. The Pynx5. Bouleterion (Meeting of the Boule)6. Temple of Hephaustus7. Stoa of Zeus
8. Royal Stoa9. Panathenaic Way10. Painted Stoa11. Shops12, 13. Law Courts
De Pnyx waar de volksvergadering plaatsvond. Er konden hoogstens 15.000 mensen plaatsnemen, meestal waren er maar 6000 of minder.
Huidige overblijfselen van de Pnyx
Stoa, overdekte zuilengaanderij. Men zocht hier de schaduw op. Stoïcijnen ontleenden hun naam aan de plaats waar hun filosofen hun leer aan de man brachten. Er werd hier vaak lesgegeven.
Gebouwen aan de rand van de acropolis.
Theater ontstaat uit gezangen ter ere van Dionysus
Dionysus en een sater. Mannen verkleden zich op het feest voor Dionysus in bokken. Door de drank ontstonden spontaan gezangen en toneeltjes.
De god Pan. Dionysus was ook god van de vruchtbaarheid.
Ook de vrouwen hielden vaak losbandinge riten ter ere van Dionysus. Men zonderde zich af van de mannen en kwam in extase.
Doel van de maskers: geluidsversterkend, herkenbaarheid + meerdere rollen. Ook verhoogde schoenen en rugstokken bespreken
Maskers zijn van alle tijden. Hier lid van een stam die dit ook doet om de goden te vereren.
Fragmentje uit Aristophanes’ Lysistrata. De meeste schrijvers produceerden heel veel, er is echter slechts een fractie van overgebleven.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:Aeschylus (525—456 BC)Born in Eleusis, a district of the Athenian state, he wrote his first plays in 498 BC, but his earliest surviving play is possibly The Suppliants, written in approximately 490 BC. That same year, he participated in the Battle of Marathon, and in 480 BC he fought at the Battle of Salamis. Salamis was the subject of his play The Persians, written in 472 BC; it is possible that The Suppliants was written after this, making The Persians his earliest surviving play.
Aeschylus' work has a strong moral and religious emphasis. Many of his plays end more "happily" than those of the other two; namely, his masterpiece The Oresteia trilogy. The Suppliants, the Persians, the Seven Against Thebes and the first two parts of the Oresteia end unhappily. Besides the literary merit of his work, Aeschylus' greatest contribution to the theater was the addition of a second actor to his scenes. Previously, the action took place between a single actor and the Greek chorus. This invention was only attributed to him by later tradition, however.
Aeschylus is known to have written over 70 plays, only six of which remain extant: The Suppliants, The Persians, Seven against Thebes, Oresteia (3 delen).
In early 1990s fragments of another Aeschylus play, which had been mentioned in ancient sources, were discovered in the wrappings of a mummy in Egypt. The play, Achilles, was part of a trilogy about the Trojan War. It had been lost for over 2,000 years.
Fragment uit Oresteia, Agamemnon wordt gedood door vrouw en minnaar bij terugkomst Trojaanse Oorlog, later neemt zoon wraak maar wordt levenslang achtervolgd door wraakgodinnen.
Aeschylus frequently travelled to Sicily, where the tyrant of Gela was a patron. In 458 he travelled there for the last time; according to traditional legend, Aeschylus was killed in 456 when an eagle (or more likely a Lammergeier), mistaking the playwright's bald crown for a stone, dropped a tortoise on his head (though some accounts differ, claiming it was a stone dropped by an eagle or vulture that likely mistook his bald head for the egg of a flightless bird).
The inscription on his gravestone was written by himself before his death, and makes no mention of his theatrical renown. He chose to commemorate his military achievements only. It read:
"This gravestone covers Aeschylus, son of Euphorion, from Athens, who died in fertile Gela. The field of Marathon will speak of his bravery, and so will the longhaired Mede(Perzen werden vaak Meden genoemd) who learnt it well".
Sophocles (early 5th century—406 BC; Greek: ) playwright, dramatist, priest, and politician of Athens. Sophocles was several decades younger than Aeschylus and a decade or so older than Euripides, and was often in competition with both in dramatic contests.
He wrote 123 plays; in the dramatic competitions of the Festival of Dionysus (where each submission by one author consisted of four plays), he won more first prizes (around 20) than any other playwright, and there is no record of his ever having ranked below second place.
Many scholars, including Aristotle, considered Sophocles to be the greatest playwright in ancient Greek theatre. However, of the hundreds of works he produced in his lifetime, seven tragedies survive in their complete forms, along with around half of a satyr play. (Sixty to 90 others exist in fragments). The most famous of his surviving works are his famous three Theban plays, the tragedies surrounding Oedipus and Antigone.
Sophocles was born about a mile northwest of Athens, in the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius in Attica. His birth took place five years before the Battle of Marathon, and fifteen before the Battle of Salamis. His father, Sophilos (sometimes "Sophillus"), was a wealthy merchant. As a boy, Sopocles was educated in the arts and at a palaestra. He won awards in wrestling and music, and was said to be graceful and handsome. At the age of 16, he was chosen to lead the chorus of naked boys (paean) at the Athenian celebration of the victory aganist the Persians at the Battle of Salamis in 480.
Twelve years later, Sophocles first entered the Festival of Dionysus with his play The Triptolemos. He took first prize, defeating even Aeschylus.
In 440, Sophocles was elected as one of the ten strategoi (military commanders) of Athens.
Surprisingly, Sopocles's most famous play, Oedipus the King, only won second place.
Surviving works: Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, Electra, Ajax, Philoctetes, The Trachiniae
The 2921 Sophocles asteroid was named after him.
Antigone (begeleid Oedipus na het uitsteken van zijn ogen). We hebben ook een Antigone theatergezelschap in Vlaanderen.
Euripides (c. 480 BC–406 BC). There is significant evidence which leads most to believe that Euripides' family was quite comfortable financially. He had a wife named Melito, and together they had three sons.
According to ancient sources, he wrote over 90 plays, 18 of which are extant (since it is now widely agreed that the play Rhesus was actually written by someone else). Fragments of most of the other plays survive, some of them substantial. The number of Euripides' plays that have survived is more than that of Aeschylus and Sophocles together, partly due to the chance preservation of a manuscript that was likely part of a complete collection of his works.
The record of Euripides' public life, other than his involvement in dramatic competitions, is almost non-existent.
Euripides first competed in the famous Athenian dramatic festival (the Dionysia) in 455, one year after the death of Aeschylus. He came in third. It was not until 441 that he won first place, and over the course of his life Euripides claimed a mere four victories.
From his plays it is apparent that he was very skeptical of Greek religion, and was aware of intellectual movements of his time, such as the Sophistic one. He reshaped the formal structure of traditional attic tragedy by showing relevant women characters, smart slaves and by debunking many heroes of Greek myths.
Euripides was a frequent target of Aristophanes' humor. He appears as a character in The Acharnians, Thesmophoriazousae, and most memorably in The Frogs, where Dionysus travels to Hades to bring Euripides back from the dead. After a competition of poetry, Dionysus instead opts to bring Aeschylus instead.
Euripides' final competition in Athens was in 408. Although there is a tradition that he left Athens embittered because of his defeats, there is no real evidence for this position. He died in 406, probably in Athens or nearby, and not in Macedon, as old biographers repeatedly state.
When compared with Aeschylus, who won thirteen times, and Sophocles, with eighteen victories, Euripides was the least honored, though not necessarily the least popular, of the three -- at least in his lifetime. Later, in the 4th century BC, the dramas of Euripides became more popular than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles. His works influenced New Comedy and Roman drama, and were later idolized by the French classicists; his influence on drama reaches modern times.
Uitvinder van de deus ex machina omdat toneelstukken soms te ingewikkeld werden.
Aristophanes (c. 448 BC - 380 BC) was a Greek comic poet.
The place and even the exact date of his birth are unknown, but he was probably educated in Athens. He is famous for writing comedies such as The Birds for the two Athenian festivals: the Dionysia and the Lenea. He wrote at least 30 plays, 11 of which still survive, and his plays are the only surviving examples of Greek Old Comedy. Many of his plays were political, and often satirized the well-known citizens of Athens and their conduct in the Peloponnesian War. He is known to have been prosecuted for Athenian law's equivalent of libel more than once. A famous comedy, The Frogs, was given the unprecedented honor of a second performance.
He appears in Plato's Symposium, giving a humorous mythical account of the origin of Love. The Clouds pokes fun at famous figures, notably Socrates, and may have contributed to the common misconception of the philosopher as a Sophist. Lysistratawas written during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta and presents a pacifist theme in a comical manner: the women of the two states deprive their husbands of sex until they stop fighting. This play was later illustrated at length by Pablo Picasso.
The Frogs tells the story of how the god Dionysus, despairing of the state of Athens tragedians, travels to Hades to bring Euripides back from the dead to rescue the Athenians.
However, in the underworld, a small "civil war" is going. Euripides, who had only just recently died, is challenging the great Aeschylus to the seat of 'Best Tragic Poet' at the dinner table of Pluto. A contest is held with Dionysus as judge . Dionysus eventually chooses Aeschylus, although he had originally set out to retrieve Euripides, because he knew "from the depth of his heart" that the traditional and morally sound Aeschylus was the only tragic poet for the job.
The title of the play derives from the chorus of frogs that greets Dionysus when he is ferried across the river Styx