Commas, comma rules

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Instructions: Put in all necessary commas, comma rules and capital letters. Do not change any of the periods. Then sentences are all correct. You do NOT need to add any apostrophes (‘) or hyphens (-).
A Brief History of Jamestown

[adapted by Rick Shur from the Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation]

the jamestown colony was sponsored by the virginia company of london a group of investors who hoped to profit from the venture. chartered in 1606 by king james i the company also supported three english national goals of making a claim to the land in North America seeking a northwest passage to the orient and converting the virginia indians to the anglican religion. [add 3 commas]
the ship carrying 105 passengers one of whom died during the voyage departed from england in december 1606 and reached the virginia coast in late april 1607. the expedition was led by captain christopher newport. after two weeks of exploration a site offering deep water anchorage and a good defensive position was selected and on may 14 work began on the settlement. initially the colony was governed by a council of seven with one member serving as president. [add 7 commas]
serious problems soon emerged in the small english outpost which was located in the midst of a chiefdom of about 14000 algonquian-speaking indians ruled by the powerful leader powhatan. relations with the powhatan indians were tenuous although trading opportunities were established. an unfamiliar climate and lack of food led to disease and death. many of the original colonists were upper-class englishmen and the colony lacked sufficient laborers and skilled farmers. [add 5 commas]
the first two english women arrived at jamestown in 1608 and more came in subsequent years. however men outnumbered women for most of the 17th century. [add 2 commas]
captain john smith became the colony’s leader in september 1608 – the fourth in a succession of council presidents – and established a “no work--no food” policy. smith had been instrumental in trading with the powhatan indians for food. however in the fall of 1609 he was injured by burning gunpowder and left for england. smith never returned to virginia but promoted colonization of north america until his death in 1631 and published numerous accounts of the virginia colony. [add 2 commas]
smith’s departure was followed by a period of warfare between the colonists and indians. in addition this time witnessed the deaths of many colonists who were dying of starvation and disease. in the spring of 1610 the colonists were about to abandon jamestown but new settlers with supplies arrived from england. this group of new colonists arrived under king james’s second charter which provided for stronger leadership under a governor and the introduction of a period of military law which carried harsh punishments for those who did not obey. [add 6 commas]
in order to make a profit for the virginia company settlers tried a number of small industries including glassmaking wood production and tar manufacture. however until the 1613 introduction of a new cash crop tobacco by colonist john rolfe who later married powhatan’s daughter pocahontas none of the colonists’ efforts to establish profitable enterprises were successful. tobacco cultivation required large amounts of land and labor and stimulated the rapid growth of the virginia colony. In 1619 african slaves were brought to virginia to work in the tobacco fields. this began the slave trade in north america which did not end until abraham lincoln emancipated the slaves in1863. [add 12 commas]

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