A. Spain, England and France (SEF) were the dominate countries of this time.
B. The English defeat of the Spanish Armada ended Spanish control of the seas. England and other European nations could begin colonies in North America because it was now safe to sail the waters.
II. Jamestown Settlement
A. In April 1607, settlers sent by the Virginia Company in London entered Chesapeake Bay and founded Jamestown.
B. Captain John Smith arrived in 1608 to govern the colonists.
C. When the colonists discovered how to grow tobacco, the colony began to prosper. Relations with the Powhatan, the Native Americans living nearby, also improved when one of the colonists, John Rolfe, married Pocahontas, the daughter of Chief Powhatan. D. The Virginia Company allowed a representative government in which men elected representatives, or burgesses, to an assembly. The assembly made local laws.
E. The House of Burgesses met for the first time on July 30, 1619.
F. 90 women were sent to Jamestown so that families could form and the population could increase.
G. 20 Africans came to Jamestown. They were sold to Virginia planters to work in the tobacco fields. They may have come as servants, not as slaves.
H. Because of the financial problems the Virginia Company faced, King James of England canceled its charter and made Jamestown England’s first royal colony in America.
I. Religious Freedom
A. There were two groups of Protestants in England. Those who wanted to reform the Anglican Church were Puritans. Those who wanted to leave and set up their own church were Separatists.
B. Some of these Separatists were given a guarantee by the Virginia Company to be able to practice their religion freely if they settled in Virginia. In return they had to share their profits with the Virginia Company. These people called themselves Pilgrims. C. The Mayflower carried Pilgrims to settle the Virginia colony. They landed north, however, at Plymouth, Massachusetts, due to the oncoming winter. Plymouth was not part of the Virginia Company territory and its laws did not apply. So the Pilgrims drew up the Mayflower Compact to provide laws to live by. It was the beginning of a democratic government in America.
D. The Pilgrims received help from the Native Americans in learning to plant crops and in hunting and fishing. Without them the Pilgrims may not have survived.
II. New Settlements
A. The Puritans received a royal charter and formed the Massachusetts Bay Colony located north of Plymouth. The group settled in Boston with John Winthrope as their governor.
B. During the Great Migration in the 1630s, more than 15,000 Puritans came to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic difficulties in England.
C. An elected group called the General Court ran the colony. The Massachusetts Bay Colony created a colonial legislature when settlers wanted a larger role in government. Every adult male property owner was a church member and could vote for governor and representatives to the General Court.
D. Although the Puritans left England for religious freedom in America, they criticized or persecuted people who held religious beliefs other than theirs. This led to the formation of new colonies in America.
E. Thomas Hooker founded Hartford. Three years later, Hartford and two neighboring towns adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. This was the first written constitution in America.
F. Roger Williams, a minister, established Rhode Island, where religious toleration existed. People of all faiths could worship as they pleased.
H. John Wheelwright founded the colony of New Hampshire. It became independent of Massachusetts in 1679.
III. England and the Colonies
A. England had two groups of colonies:
1. The New England colonies run by private corporations under a royal charter. They were Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
2. The royal colonies run by England. They were Maryland and Virginia.
B. The Duke of York gained control of the colony New Amsterdam, which was owned by the Dutch and named it New York. He promised the colonists freedom of religion and allowed them to hold on to their land.
C. The southern part of New York between the Hudson and the Delaware Rivers became New Jersey. Its inhabitants were diverse in ethnicity and religion, like those from New York. Without a major port or city, however, it did not make the money the landowners expected.
D. By 1702 New Jersey became a royal colony, yet it continued to make local laws.
A. William Penn received a large tract of land in America from the king as a repayment of a debt. The colony was Pennsylvania.
B. Penn, a Quaker, saw Pennsylvania as a chance to put the Quaker ideas of tolerance and equality into practice. He designed the city of Philadelphia and wrote the first constitution. C. To encourage settlers to Pennsylvania, he advertised the colony throughout Europe in several languages. More than 3,000 English, Welsh, Irish, Dutch, and German people settled there.
D. Penn granted the colonists the right to elect representatives to a legislative assembly. Three Lower Counties formed their own legislature and became the colony of Delaware.
E. Delaware functioned as a separate colony but was supervised by Pennsylvania’s governor.
V. Coming to America
A. The colonies needed people to grow and prosper. Settlers came voluntarily. Others came because they were
1. Criminals or prisoners of war from England and Scotland and could earn their release if they worked for a period of time (seven years).
2. Seized and brought as slaves from Africa.
3. Indentured servants who worked without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for their passage.
B. Maryland was a proprietary colony. King Charles I gave Sir George Calvert, called Lord Baltimore, a colony north of Virginia. Lord Baltimore wanted to establish a safe place for Catholics, and he also hoped that the colony would make him rich.
C. Maryland tobacco farmers also produced wheat, fruit, vegetables, and livestock so that they would not be dependent upon one cash crop. Wealthy landowners became powerful. As plantations grew in number, indentured servants and enslaved Africans were used to work the plantations.
D. Because the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania was disputed, the British astronomers, Mason and Dixon, were hired to resolve the issue and establish a boundary.
E. A conflict between Catholics and Protestants, who outnumbered them, resulted in the passage of the Act of Toleration in 1649. It stated that both groups had the right to worship freely. The colony’s Protestant majority repealed this act in 1692.
VI. Settling the Carolinas
A. King Charles II founded the colony of Carolina. The proprietors took large estates for themselves and hoped to sell and rent land to new settlers. In 1670 English settlers arrived, and by 1680 they founded Charleston.
B. The English philosopher John Locke wrote their constitution.
C. Northern Carolina was settled by small farmers. Because this northern region did not have a good harbor, settlers relied on Virginia’s ports.
D. Southern Carolina was more prosperous due to the fertile farmland and its harbor city, Charleston. Rice became the leading crop, and indigo, a blue flowering plant, became the “blue gold” of Carolina.
A. James Oglethorpe founded the colony of Georgia in 1733. It was the last British colony to be founded in the Americas. Great Britain created Georgia for several reasons:
1. as a place where British debtors and poor people could make a fresh start
2. as a military barrier to protect the other British colonies from Spain due to its location between Spanish Florida and South Carolina
B. Georgia did receive poor people but few debtors. Religious refugees also settled there.
C. Oglethorpe banned slavery, Catholics, and rum in the colony and limited the size of farms. As settlers came, they objected to the laws, so he lifted all the bans except on slavery. In 1751, he turned the colony back to the king.
D. Most of the settlers of southern Carolina came from the English colony of Barbados in the West Indies. They brought with them enslaved Africans to work in the rice fields. Because so much labor was needed to grow rice, the demand for slaves increased. By 1700 more than half of Charleston’s new settlers were enslaved Africans.
E. Due to the tension between the wealthy southerners and the small farm colonists in the north, Carolina was formally divided into two colonies—North Carolina and South Carolina—in 1729.
VIII. New France
A. The French settlement in the Americas grew slowly. The French were interested mainly in the fishing and fur trade at first. Their settlement called New France became a royal colony. They had settlements in two regions:
1. North in Quebec and along the St. Lawrence River. They consisted mostly of forts, trading posts, and later large estates.
2. South along the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle claimed the region called Louisiana for France. In 1718 the port city of New Orleans was founded.
B. The French, years later, did send explorers, traders, and missionaries farther west to the Rocky Mountains and southwest to the Rio Grande.
C. The French respected the ways of the Native Americans, so they had better relations with them than did other Europeans. The fur trappers traveled far into Native American territory, so they needed to learn to live among the Native Americans. These trappers did not push the Native Americans off their land. The missionaries did not try to change their customs.
IX. New Spain
A. Spain had a large empire in Mexico, the Caribbean, Central, and South America called New Spain. To keep control and protect their claims, they sent soldiers, missionaries, and settlers north of this region into
1. present-day New Mexico, where Santa Fe was founded
3. the region that is now Texas in the early 1700s, establishing San Antonio and other military posts
B. Rivalries in Europe between Great Britain and Spain often resulted in fighting between the British and Spanish colonies in America. Wars between the British and French in Europe also greatly affected their lands in the Americas.
X. The Columbian Exchange
A. Widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations and diseases following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
XI. Transatlantic Slave Trade
A. Started in the British West Indies to provide a labor force for the sugar plantations. The triangular tradedeveloped between the Colonies, England, and West Indies and slaves were traded in the colonies for other goods (including the cash crops slaves would help cultivate). The demand for rice, indigo, tobacco, cotton led to plantation owners needing more slaves and the slave trade increased.
XI. Ideas that resulted in Representative Government
A. John Locke – European Enlightenment philosopher; believed that personal liberty could coexist with political order; consent is the basis for government and fixes its limits; government is a social contract with limited powers and has obligations to its creators; government can be modified by its creators at any time (heavily influenced Thomas Jefferson and the writing of the Declaration of Independence); discussed legislative and executive branches of a government; wrote about unalienable rights which included life, liberty and protection of property
B. Charles de Montesquieu – expanded on Locke’s beliefs, added the judiciary to Locke’s executive and legislature; wrote of the separation of powers; believed that in a republic, education is an absolute necessity
C. William Blackstone – an English judge, jurist, and professor who wrote the historical and analytical treatise on common law (Commentaries on the Laws of England); considered as the definitive pre-Revolutionary War source of common law; believed strongly in religious tolerance; supported the idea of self-defense (later became the 2nd Amendment); wrote about “natural rights” which included life and liberty
D. Anne Hutchinson- a religious leader. Later on in her life her and another religious leader, Roger Williams were banned from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Soon they formed the Rhode Island Colony.
E. Magna Carta - it a document including a series of laws establishing the rights of English barons and major land owners, which limited the absolute authority of the King of England and became the basis for the rights of English citizens.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Establish English colony in New World
Colonists disappeared without a trace.
Trade and profits
Founded as joint-stock company. House of Burgesses (1619). Only 60 of 1st 900 colonists survived.
Religious freedom for Separatists
Mayflower Compact. Led by William Bradford
Trade and profits
Set up as Dutch colony, taken over by English in 1664