Colonial Settlement & Society

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Colonial Settlement & Society
01. An important difference between French and English patterns of colonization of North America was that (A) The French discovered significant quantities of precious metals (B) the French successfully founded a permanent settlement prior to 1600 (C) the French successfully converted large numbers of Native Americans to Christianity (D) French Protestant dissenters were prohibited from migrating to the New World (E) French settlers enslaved large numbers of Native Americans.
02. England lagged behind Spain and Portugal in the colonization of the New World partly because of (A) her geographical isolation (B) her lack of any claim of discovery prior to the voyages of the 1570s (C) her religious connection with the Pope (D) the distraction of the conquest of Wales and Ireland (E) her economic backwardness.
03. In his Discourse Concerning Western Planting, Richard Hakluyt argued for English colonization of the New World for all of the following reasons except: (A) Colonies could be manufacturing centers for an English (B) England should try to humble the King of Spain (C) England should use the New World as an outlet for its thieves, criminals, and beggars (D) England should attempt to convert the natives to the true Protestant religion of Anglicanism (E)

The colonies could provide England with precious minerals.

04. The Dominion of New England was (A) a confederation of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire that consolidated Puritan control of those colonies (B) instituted by William and Mary to reform the government of the New England colonies plus New York and New Jersey into one administrative unit (C) instituted by King George III to improve the enforcement of the Navigation Acts (D) established by the New England colonies for defense against foreigners during the English Civil War (E) it was imposed from London and embraced at first all New England, it was expanded two years later to include New York and East and West Jersey.
05. During the eighteenth century the social structures of British-America and England differed in that there was no (A) practice of deference to one’s social superiors in British-America (B) significant middle class in England (C) aristocracy in British-America (D) large, destitute white beggar class in British-America (E) titled nobility in England.
06. All of the following statements about early Georgia are true except (A) It was founded by James Oglethorpe in 1732. (B) It provided an opportunity for a new life for people imprisoned for debt. (C) It provided a refuge for all persecuted European Protestants. (D) Slavery and the use of alcohol were banned. (E) Its first charter provided for a Governor and a representative legislature.
07. A major factor that retarded the early development of the Jamestown colony prior to 1610 was (A) the obsessive search for gold by the first settlers (B) the unwillingness of the local Indian tribes to assist the settlers (C) fear of attack by Spanish forces (D) the settlers’ preoccupation with planting tobacco (E) failure of the Virginia Company to send supply ships.
08. In seventeenth century Puritan New England full membership in a Congregational Church required (A) a profession of faith and a demonstration of good works (B) a written recommendation by the church’s minister (C) a conversion experience proving that the candidate was one of God’s elect (D) the support and testimony of three current members (E) membership by both parents and a conversion experience.
09. In Puritan New England the state supported the Congregational church by all of the following means except (A) selecting clergymen (B) expelling dissidents (C) enforcing compulsory attendance at services (D) taxing residents to finance churches (E) establishing colleges to train ministers.
10. The Puritans established a system of public education for all of the following reasons except (A) to enable all residents to read and study the Bible (B) to encourage a diversity of viewpoints on religious matters (C) to prepare people to be good citizens (D) to encourage the knowledge of and respect for classical literature (E) to train people to perform better in their respective callings.
11. Which of the following was an important result of Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia? (A) increased power for the House of Burgesses (B) more representation for the western counties of Virginia in the House of Burgesses (C) the restriction of white settlement west of the Appalachian mountains (D) Parliamentary taxation of tobacco exports (E) the negotiation of a new Indian treaty that opened up more western land for whites.
12. In the thirteen colonies prior to 1763, a major source of political tensions was the conflict between (A) the governors and the leaders of the assemblies (B) the governors and their councils (C) the leaders of the assemblies and British customs agents (D) the leaders of local governments and the leaders of the assemblies (E) between the governors and the leaders of local governments.
13. All of the following were important factors that shaped the degree of harshness of slave systems in British America except (A) the ratios of blacks to whites in a colony’s population (B) the type of work that slaves performed (C) the policy of Parliament towards the slaves (D) the availability of an ample supply of fresh slaves (E) climate and disease.
14. Puritan influence in New England declined prior to the 1690s for all of the following reasons except (A) the death of the leaders of the first generation (B) the increase in non-English immigrants (C) the growth of internal religious dissent (D) dissatisfaction with Puritan economic regulations (E) pressure for economic and political controls applied by the Crown.
15. During the early years of the Pennsylvania colony William Penn did all of the following except (A) obtain a charter that gave the King of England the right to veto the colony’s laws (B) negotiate the purchase of land from the Delaware Indians (C) design a plan for the city of Philadelphia (D) proclaim a doctrine of religious toleration for all who professed belief in “One almighty God” (E) establish a policy of free trade between Pennsylvania and the rest of the British Empire.
16. The two largest groups of non-English immigrants who came to British America during the eighteenth century prior to the American Revolution were (A) the Irish Catholics and the Jews (B) the Irish Catholics and the Germans (C) the French Huguenots and the Germans (D) the Dutch and the Scotch-Irish and the Germans.
17. The Navigation Acts permitted British-Americans to (A) sell food to the non-English West Indies (B) sell tobacco to southern Europe (C) buy wine from French merchants (D) sell rice to Spanish merchants (E) trade with foreign empires during wartime.
18. Which of the following was an important result of British mercantilist policy? (A) the growth of North American manufacturing (B) a surplus of imports over exports for the empire as a whole (C) improvement in the standard of living in the colonies (D) the stifling of urban growth in the colonies (E) the reduction of trade restrictions with European nations.
19. All of the following were prominent religious leaders in colonial America except: (A) Jonathan Edwards (B) Henry Ward Beecher (C) George Whitefield (D) John Cotton (E) Increase Mather.

20. Which of the following were important differences between slavery in the northern and southern colonies in colonial British America?

I. Slaves tended to live in urban areas in the north.

II. Slave codes were milder in the north.

III. Slaves had more contact with free blacks and poor whites in the north

IV. Slaves were less likely to die of disease in the north

V. The ratio of slaves to whites was lower in the north.

(A) I, II, and IV only (B) II, III, IV, and V only (C) I, III, IV, and V only (D) III, IV, and V only (E) all of the above.

21. Identify the author of the following quotation and the colony to which it refers:

“for we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are upon us; so that if we shall deal falsely with our god in this work we have undertaken and so cause Him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a byword through the world.”

(A) William Bradford and Plymouth (B) William Penn and Pennsylvania (C) John Smith and Virginia (D) John Winthrop and Massachusetts Bay (E) Lord Baltimore and Maryland.
22. Which of the following were important consequences of the Great Awakening of the 1740s?

I. an increase in church membership in all regions

II. an increase in religious toleration and freedom

III. the founding of Harvard and Yale

IV. the division of the Congregational and Presbyterian churches into rival factions

V. a renewed interest in the conversion and more humane treatment of Indians and blacks

(A) I, II, III, and V only (B) I, III, IV, and IV only (C) I, II, III, and IV only (D) I, II, IV, and V only (E) all of the above.
24. All of the following statements about the colonial household are true except (A) It was a more important social institution in the south than in the north. (B) It served as a basic economic unit of production and exchange. (C) It provided basic education for children and servants. (D) It provided religious exercises to supplement church services. (E) It served as a welfare institution for orphans or aged or poor people placed there by the government.
25. All of the following groups were part of the coalition that constituted the Jacksonian Democratic party except: A) economically marginal northern farmers (B) self-employed artisans (C) hired workers (D) urban Catholic immigrants (E) rural Protestant slaveholders.
26. The Puritans who settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony wanted their settlement to be primarily (A) a place where they could get away from persecution (B) an example to the rest of the world (C) a place where they would have the opportunity to prosper free from government regulation (D) a society that practiced complete separation of church and state (E) a pluralistic society in which all would be free to practice and teach their beliefs.
27. In founding the colony of Georgia, James Oglethorpe’s primary purpose was to (A) provide a refuge for persecuted English Quakers (B) provide a refuge for persecuted Christians of all sects from all parts of Europe (C) gain a base for launching English expeditions against Spanish-held Florida (D) make a financial profit (E) provide a refuge for English debtors.
28. The immediate issue in dispute in Bacon’s Rebellion was (A) the jailing of individuals or seizure of their property for failure to pay taxes during a time of economic hardship (B) the under-representation of the back country in Virginia’s legislature (C) the refusal of large planters to honor the terms of their contracts with former indentured servants (D) the perceived failure of Virginia’s governor to protect the colony’s frontier area from the depredations of raiding Indians (E) the colonial governor’s manipulation of tobacco prices for the benefit of himself and a small clique of his friends.
29. The “Great Awakening” of the 18th century was (A) an intellectual and philosophical movement in America similar to the Enlightenment in Europe (B) the process by which a substantial number of America’s population began to see the desirability of independence from Great Britain (C) the beginning of the first substantial American contributions to the fields of art and literature (D) a major religious revival (E) a rapid growth in the population of the British colonies in America.
30. The economic theory of mercantilism would be consistent with which of the following statements? (A) Economies will prosper most when trade is restricted as little as possible (B) A government should seek to direct the economy so as to maximize exports (C) Colonies are of little economic importance to the mother country (D) It is vital that a country import more than it exports (E) Tariff barriers should be avoided as much as possible.
31. The primary motive of those who founded the British colony in Virginia during the 17th century was (A) desire for economic gain (B) desire for religious freedom (C) desire to create a perfect religious commonwealth as an example to the rest of the world (D) desire to recreate in the New World the story of feudalistic society that was fading in the Old (E) desire to increase the power and glory of Great Britain.
32. The purpose of the Treaty of Tordesillas was (A) to divide the non-European world between Spain and Portugal (B) to specify which parts of North America should be French and which parts Spanish (C) to create an alliance of France, Holland, and England against Spanish designs in the New World (D) to divide the New World between France and Spain (E) to exclude any Portuguese colonization from the Western hemisphere.
33. The main reason for the British colonial authorities’ preference for royal colonies over those with other types of government was (A) the desire to exercise closer control over the colonies (B) the desire to prevent corruption within colonial governments (C) the desire to assure that the rights of the colonists were not infringed by greedy proprietors (D) the need to reduce the size of the colonial bureaucracy (E) the desire to increase colonial prosperity.
34. The Molasses Act was intended to enforce England’s mercantilist policies by (A) forcing the colonists to export solely to Great Britain (B) forcing the colonists to buy sugar from other British colonies rather than from foreign producers (C) forbidding the colonists to engage in manufacturing activity in competition with British industries (D) providing a favorable market for the products of the British East India Company (E) creating an economic situation in which gold tended to flow from the colonies to the mother country.
35. Jonathan Edwards was (A) a preacher of the Great Awakening in New England (B) a mid-18th-century Pennsylvania Enlightenment philosopher (C) an early opponent of Parliamentary taxation of the American colonies (D) a Transcendentalist preacher and writer (E) the founder of the communitarian experiment at New Harmony.
36. The Mayflower Compact could best be described as (A) a detailed frame of government (B) a complete constitution (C) a business contract (D) a foundation for self-government (E) an enumeration of the causes for leaving England and coming to the New World.
37. In founding the colony of Pennsylvania, William Penn’s primary purpose was to (A) provide a refuge for persecuted English Quakers (B) provide a refuge for persecuted Christians of all sects from all parts of Europe (C) demonstrate the possibility and practicality of establishing truly friendly relations with the Indians (D) make a financial profit (E) provide a refuge for English debtors.
38. When colonial Massachusetts’ governor Thomas Hutchinson attempted to force the sale of taxed tea in Boston in 1773, Bostonians reacted with the (A) Boston Massacre (B) Boston Tea Party (C) Declaration of Independence (D) Articles of Confederation (E) Massachusetts Circular Letter.
39. The most unusual feature of the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was that it (A) provided that the colony should be run as a religious commonwealth (B) made the colony completely independent of all English authority (C) assured the colonists all the rights they would have had if they had been living in England (D) did not specify where the company’s headquarters should be (E) specified that only Parliament, not the King, was to have authority over the colony.
40. During the first two decades of the 17th century all of the following aided in the establishment and growth of the colony at Jamestown, Virginia, except : (A) establishment of the Virginia House of Burgesses (B) establishment of the ownership of private property (C) beginning of tobacco cultivation (D) good relations with the local Indians (E) large influxes of supplies and colonists from England.
41. The first religious development to have an impact throughout colonial America was (A) the establishment of religious toleration in Maryland (B) the spread of Quaker ideas from Pennsylvania (C) the Halfway Covenant (D) the Parsons’ Cause (E) the Great Awakening.
42. The reason slavery flourished in the Southern English colonies and not in New England is (A) most New England farms were too small for slaves to be economically necessary or viable, whereas in the South the cultivation of staple crops such as rice and tobacco on large plantations necessitated the use of large numbers of indentured servants or slaves (B) blacks from the tropical climate of Africa could not adapt to the harsh New England winters. Their high death rates made their use as slave laborers unprofitable (C) a shortage of females in the Southern English colonies led to many female black Africans being imported as slaves and as potential wives for white planters in the region (D) whereas New England religious groups such as the Puritans forbade slavery on moral grounds, the Anglican church which dominated the Southern English colonies encouraged the belief that blacks were inferior, thus, not deserving of equal status (E) the Stono uprising in 1739 convinced New Englanders that the cost of controlling slaves was not worth their marginal economic benefits.
43. The Albany Congress of 1754 was convened for the major purpose of (A) adding New York to the Dominion of New England (B) getting the colonies to form a “grand council” to coordinate their western expansion and their common defense against Indians (C) uniting the colonies under a “grand council” to resist British economic sanctions and coordinate activities against British tax officials (D) cooperating with the French in their efforts to rid western New York and southern Canada of raiding Indian tribes (E) writing a proclamation to be sent to King George III in protest of the Stamp Act.
44. The primary motive for European exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries was (A) to gain access to the wealth of the Far East (B) to relieve population overcrowding (C) to find a place outside of Europe for religious dissidents to be relocated (D) to establish bases for defense against other European powers (E) scientific curiosity.
45. The Great Awakening of the mid-18th century refers to (A) a series of religious revivals that swept through the English colonies spreading evangelistic fervor and challenging the control of traditional clerics over their congregations (B) the intellectual revolution which served as a precursor to the Enlightenment and challenged orthodox religion’s claims to knowledge of humankind and the universe (C) the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in England and its New World colonies (D) the growing realization among English colonists that independence from England was only a matter of time and was the key to their future success (E) the sudden awareness among North American Indians that their only chance for survival against the rapidly growing number of European colonists was to fight them before the Europeans grew any stronger.
46. The first successful English colony in North America was located in (A) Roanoke, Virginia (B) Plymouth, Massachusetts (C) Jamestown, Virginia (D) Salem, Massachusetts (E) Manhattan, New York.
47. Which of the following is not true of English colonial families in mid-18th Century America (A) Physical punishment was the normal method of enforcing unquestioned obedience from children (B) Women lost virtually all of their legal rights as individuals once they married (C) Most families bore children who lived long enough to bear children of their own (D) Women, while subservient to their husbands, set the moral standards by which children were raised and decided how the children would be educated and trained (E) More than 90% of families lived in rural areas at about this time.
48. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Europeans’ greatest impact on the Americas was the (A) introduction of Christianity to American Indian tribes (B) destruction of the massive American forests to make room for farms (C) introduction of modern technology to American Indian tribes, allowing them to compete effectively with Europe (D) introduction of European diseases to America, devastating many American Indian tribes (E) introduction of slavery to the Americas.
49. Parliament claimed the right to tax and legislate for England’s American colonies whenever it desired, without direct American representation in Parliament, through passage of (A) the Declaratory Act (B) the Proclamation of 1763 (C) the Townshend Acts (D) the Intolerable Acts (E) the Currency Act.
50. Colonies such as the Carolinas were known as “restoration colonies” because (A) their creation was mainly due to the restoration of the Stuarts to the English throne (B) they were created as places to send criminals to restore them to civilized behavior and give them a chance to lead decent, honest lives (C) their creation was mainly due to an effort by the English government to restore a balance of power in the New World between the thriving English colonies in New England and the less successful English colonies in the South (D) their creation was mainly due to the restoration of the power of English Parliament over the king (E) their creation was an attempt to restore the supremacy of the Anglican church in the colonies.
51. In the mid-18th century, the first wave of non-English speaking immigrants (other than African slaves) arrived in the English colonies. They were ethnic (A) Poles (B) Scandinavians (C) Germans (D) Italians (E) Russians.
52. The Dominion of New England was established by the English government in 1686 to (A) increase the power of the Puritans (B) end the Glorious Revolution and restore James II to the English throne (C) stimulate trade among the fledgling New England colonies (D) increase the effectiveness of the various New England legislatures (E) increase the authority of the English government over the New England colonies.
53. A major impact of the French and Indian War on the attitudes of Americans was (A) it led many Americans to question the superiority of English colonial rule and to support French colonial rule (B) it convinced most Americans to avoid further exploration and settlement of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys until after the American Revolution (C) it bound the American colonists more tightly to England than ever before and made most of them realize they needed English protection from foreign powers such as the French (D) it led many colonists who had previously supported independence from England to call for moderation because they feared that the huge British military presence in the colonies brought over from England to fight the French could now be turned on rebellious colonists (E) with the threat of the French now gone from their borders, many colonists now felt that English protection was unnecessary and they felt free to take a more independent stand toward Britain than they had taken previously.
54. All of the following contributed to the success and stability of the New England colonies, and the bare survival of the Chesapeake Bay colonies except : (A) New England colonists tended to arrive in family units while the vast majority of Chesapeake Bay colonists were young single males who arrived as indentured servants (B) the Chesapeake Bay region had a much higher death rate among its colonists than did the New England region (C) women were treated more as equals in the New England colonies than they were in the Chesapeake Bay region, making it more difficult to attract women to Chesapeake Bay (D) the ratio of males to females in Chesapeake Bay was much more imbalanced than in New England, making it more difficult for males in Chesapeake Bay to find wives and start families (E) the population increased faster in New England, allowing for the development of stable communities, than it did in the Chesapeake Bay region.
55. By 1760, the biggest problem with the economy of the English colonies was (A) smuggling (B) a trade surplus so large that England was threatening to confiscate American assets to help balance the English economy (C) a lack of demand for the vast quantities of high quality American manufactured goods now being produced, leading to high unemployment in the American colonies (D) a huge balance-of-trade deficit that threatened the solvency of the colonial economy (E) a lack of adequate deep-water ports to provide loading and unloading facilities for the large number of ships now trying to bring goods to or carry goods from the colonies.
56. In the English colonies in the mid-I8th century, formal education beyond minimal reading and writing skills was considered (A) essential for both males and females (B) essential for males, but not for females (C) essential for the children of poor colonists so the children would have a better chance of obtaining wealth (D) something every colonial government should provide for its colonists (E) non-essential for both males and females, except as a status symbol for those who could afford to pay for it.
57. The French colonies in Canada during the 17th and 18th centuries developed an economy dependent primarily on (A) agricultural exports (B) the fur trade (C) the mining of precious metals such as gold and silver (D) fishing (E) heavy manufacturing.
58. The conquistador responsible for the conquest of Montezuma and the Aztec empire in Mexico was (A) Francisco Pizarro (B) Hernando Cortes (C) Vasquez de Coronado (D) Giovanni da Verrazano (E) Hernando de Soto.
59. All of the following factors in 15th and 16th century Europe contributed to the exploration and colonization of the New World except : (A) an increase in Europe’s population (B) an increase in the wealth of the major European powers (C) major technical advances in navigational equipment (D) the overthrow of the traditional hierarchical social structure (E) an increase in the power of Europe’s absolute monarchs.
60. The use of slavery in the English colonies became widespread after 1660 because (A) it was realized that slaves made better workers than did indentured servants (B) English common law was changed to allow legalized slavery (C) the availability of indentured servants dropped dramatically (D) slaves became a symbol of status among the wealthy at about this time (E) the price to buy a slave dropped dramatically at about this time.
61. The jury in the 1735 trial of John Peter Zenger for the seditious libel of New York’s governor (A) found Zenger guilty of fostering “an ill opinion of the government.” (B) declared that the governor could censor the press (C) asserted that restrictions on the freedom of the press were unconstitutional (D) could not reach a verdict and dismissed the charges against Zenger (E) acquitted Zenger of libel because his criticism of the governor had been true.
62. The first permanent European settlement in North America was (A) Jamestown, in what is now Virginia (B) New Orleans, in what is now Louisiana (C) Santa Fe, in what is now New Mexico (D) St. Augustine, in what is now Florida (E) Mobile, in what is now Alabama.
63. The headright system adopted in the Virginia colony (A) determined the eligibility of a settler for voting and holding office (B) toughened the laws applying to indentured servants (C) gave fifty acres of land to anyone who could transport himself to the colony (D) encouraged the development of urban centers (E) prohibited the settlement of single men and women in the colony.
64. Roger Williams believed that

I. religious dissenters should be expelled from any colony.

Il. the state should not impose any authority in matters of faith.

III. ministers should assume more authority in governmental matters.

IV. colonists had no right to land until it was purchased from the Indians.
(A) I and II only (B) II and III only (C) II and IV only (D) I, II, and III only (E) I, II, III, and IV.
65. In the 16th century which nation dominated the exploration and colonization of the Americas? (A) France (B) England (C) Spain (D) Portugal (E) Italy.
67. By 1730, blacks were a majority of what mainland English colony’s population? (A) Virginia (B) Maryland (C) South Carolina (D) Georgia (E) North Carolina.
68. During the colonial period, most of the attempts to abolish slavery were led by (A) Anglican bishops (B) Quakers (C) the yeomen farmers of the South (D) the free black population of New England (E) Methodist ministers.
69. The English colony at Jamestown (A) was developed on a high plateau overlooking the James River (B) was settled mostly by farmers from the rural areas of England (C) nearly collapsed because the colonists refused to cooperate, searched for gold instead of planting crops, and antagonized the Indians (D) survived the “starving time” by forging a temporary alliance with the Spanish (E) was abandoned.
70. At the beginning of the 18th century, how did the English colonies differ from the Spanish colonies in the Americas? (A) Spain permitted its colonies a greater degree of self-government (B) While private investment was responsible for the development of the Spanish colonies, royal money was primarily responsible for the development of the English colonies (C) The compact pattern of Spanish settlements sharply contrasted with the English pattern of far-flung settlements (D) Unlike the Spanish, the English allowed settlers from a variety of nationalities and dissenting sects (E) The Spanish colonies were more responsive to the new circumstances of the Americas than the English colonies.
71. The enclosure movement which had been going on since the 16th century in England helped prepare the way for English colonization in North America by (A) improving the standard of living of the English factory worker (B) displacing farmers and creating a class of unemployed who could migrate to the colonies (C) encouraging religious toleration between the Catholics and Protestants (D) increasing the demand for skilled farmers in England (E) forcing Queen Elizabeth to negotiate a treaty with Philip II of Spain allowing English ships unhindered access to North America.
72. In which of the following areas of America did the French mostly settle? (A) Hudson Bay (B) Chesapeake Bay (C) St. Lawrence Valley and the West Indies (D) Hudson Valley (E) Delaware Valley.
73. The Maryland Act of Toleration (1649)

I. was passed in response to the charge that the colony was intolerant toward Protestantism.

II. was developed when it appeared that Roman Catholics would be outvoted by Protestants in the colony.

III. was repealed when the Puritans gained control of the colony.

IV. provided for execution of those not accepting the Trinity.
(A) I and II only (B) I, II, and III only (C) I, II, and IV only (D) I, III, and IV only (E) I, II, III and IV.
74. During the 17th century, French settlements in North America were primarily (A) permanent fishing villages shipping fish to the Catholic countries of Europe (B) ship building centers located near the sources of naval stores (C) places of refuge for French Huguenots wanting to practice their religion (D) commercial agricultural centers depending upon the exporting of wheat and corn (E) forts and trading stations serving the fur traders.
75. The Scotch-Irish immigrants to the English colonies in North America (A) were usually prosperous and well-educated professionals (B) felt little loyalty to either the English government or the Anglican Church (C) were predominantly Roman Catholic (D) tended to settle in the cities and towns along the Atlantic seaboard (E) quickly became active in and supportive of colonial governments.
76. Indentured servants were usually (A) slaves who had been emancipated by their masters (B) free blacks forced to sell themselves into slavery by economic conditions (C) paroled prisoners bound to a lifetime of service in the colonies (D) persons who voluntarily bound themselves to labor for a set number of years in return for transportation to the colonies (E) the sons and daughters of slaves.
77. At the time of Columbus’ voyages, the Indian societies of the Americas (A) probably numbered less than 10 million people (B) shared a common language and cultural heritage (C) reflected the same emerging patterns of feudal organization that characterized European societies in the early Middle Ages (D) believed strongly in the concept of private, individual land ownership (E) generally made a sharp division of labor between men’s work and women’s work.
78. In general, most Europeans considered the Indians to be (A) descendants of one of the lost tribes of Israel (B) survivors of the ancient civilization of Atlantis (C) heathens who were inferior beings (D) equal to the Europeans (E) innocent “children” who should not be contaminated by European civilization.
79. The 16th and 17th centuries economic theory which held that a state should limit its foreign imports and preserve a favorable balance of trade was (A) supply-side economics (B) laissez-faire (C) free trade (D) physiocracy (E) mercantilism.
80. Pocahontas

I. was taken captive by an English trader and held hostage in Jamestown

Il. was converted to Christianity at her request.

III. married John Rolfe.

IV. died in England.

(A) I only (B) II only (C) I and III only (D) II and IV only (E) I, II, III and IV.

81. The trial of John Peter Zenger in 1735 for seditious libel (A) established the government’s right to censor the press (B) encouraged editors to be more critical of public officials (C) resulted in a “hung jury” and a dismissal of the charges (D) determined that government censorship of the press was unconstitutional (E) found Zenger guilty.
82. The headright system (A) was commonly used in the Southern colonies to encourage settlement (B) gave the vote to all adult white male property owners (C) defined the “rights” and responsibilities of indentured servants (D) determined the boundaries of electoral districts in the colonies (E) promised religious freedom to anyone settling in the Southern colonies.
83. The Mayflower Compact (A) created a government since the Pilgrims were landing outside the jurisdiction of any government (B) developed a plan of government for the settlers in the Virginia colony (C) made provisions for dividing the land in the Plymouth colony among the settlers (D) clarified the religious beliefs of the Pilgrims (E) was an agreement to follow the Old Testament in establishing a government.
84. Prior to the European colonization of the Americas, the greatest civilizations on the continents had developed (A) among the Plains Indians of North America (B) among the Navaho and Pueblo Indians of southwestern North America (C) among the Cherokees of eastern North America (D) in the pampas of South American (E) among the inhabitants of Mesoamerica and northwestern South America.
85. New York was an English colony because the (A) English conquered the area from the Dutch (B) English settlers in the area gradually overwhelmed the French and Swedes (C) England laid claim to the area by right of colonization (D) Dutch and Swedes of the area petitioned the English to annex the colony (E) Treaty of Tordesillas gave the area to the English.
86. Most of the decimation of the Indian population in the Americas during the 16th century resulted from (A) tribal warfare (B) famine (C) European diseases (D) enslavement by the Europeans (E) wars with the Europeans.
87. The Scotch-Irish immigrants to the English colonies in North America

I. felt little loyalty to either the English government or the Anglican Church.

II. came in large numbers in the century due to deteriorating conditions in the Irish woolens industry.

III. generally settled on the frontier where they demonstrated a remarkable degree of resourcefulness, rugged individuality, and self-reliance.

IV. were predominantly Roman Catholics.
(A) I only (D) II, III and IV only

(B) II only (E) I, II, III, and IV.

(C) I, II and III only

88. Most of the slaves who came to the thirteen mainland colonies in British North America (A) were from the southern part of Africa in what is today South Africa (B) were granted their freedom after a specified period of service (C) never made up more than 5% of the population of any colony (D) were considered to be property and as such could be used as collateral for loans (E) were protected from physical harm by the Roman Catholic Church’s Canon Law.

89. All of the following were responsible for the development of western European expansion in the 15th century except: (A) the desire to break the monopoly of the Italian States on trade with Asia (B) advances in navigational knowledge and ship design (C) the emergence of nation-states (D) an ideology that claimed superiority for the Europeans and inferiority for other peoples (E) Thomas Malthus’ theory that the population of western Europe would eventually outstrip its food supply.
90. The fundamental goal of mercantilism in the 17th and 18th centuries was (A) to eliminate the obstacles to free trade among the countries of Europe (B) to have “mother’ countries serve as a source of raw materials and the colonies as a source of manufactured goods (C) to limit foreign imports and to encourage a favorable balance of trade (D) to encourage wealthy nations to provide economic assistance to the developing areas of the world (E) to discourage the growth of economic nationalism.
91. The Great Awakening was associated with (A) Thomas Jefferson (B) Henry David Thoreau (C) Jonathan Edwards (D) Lyndon Johnson (E) William Bradford.
92. Jonathan Edwards was a key figure in the (A) abolitionist movement (B) Sons of Liberty (C) Great Awakening (D) Progressive party (E) Populist party.
93. Which of the following best describes the Great Awakening? (A) An attempt by nineteenth-century to create an American literature (B) The movement among black Americans to discover their American heritage (C) The increased emphasis on science and math education after the Soviet Union launched the first satellite in 1957 (D) An eighteenth-century religious revival that was characteristic by “fire and brimstone” sermons (E) Lyndon Johnson’s domestic program that included the “War on Poverty.”
94. The first permanent English colony in North America was (A) Maryland (B) Roanoke (C) Jamestown (D) Plymouth (E) St. Augustine.
95. Which of the following most accurately describes the attitude of seventeenth-century Puritans toward religious liberty? (A) Having suffered persecution in England, they extended toleration to everyone (B) They tolerated no one whose expressed religious views varied from their own views (C) They tolerated all Protestant sects, but not Catholics (D) They tolerated Catholics, but not Quakers (E) They had no coherent views on religious liberty.
96. Armed conflicts between White Settlers and Native Americans were common during the seventeenth century. Which of the following involved Native Americans?

I. Pequot War

II. Whiskey Rebellion

III. Bacon’s Rebellion

IV. King Philip’s War
(A) I only

(B) I and IV only

(C) II and III only

(D) I, II and III only

(E) I, III and IV only

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