Cold War 1953-63 – Answers

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Cold War 1953-63 – Answers

  1. When did Stalin die? Who became the new leader of Russia

    • 1953: Nikita Khrushchev.

  2. What were the meetings between the superpower leaders called?

    • Summits

  3. What did Khrushchev tell Tito in 1955?

    • ‘There are different roads to Communism.’

  4. What did Khrushchev say about Stalin in 1956?

    • He said he was a murderer and a tyrant.

  5. What was Khrushchev’s policy called? What did he really mean by it?

    • ‘Peaceful co-existence’: but he meant ‘peaceful competition’

  6. What was de-stalinisation? Why was it dangerous for world peace?

    • Political prisoners were set free. It destabilised Iron Curtain countries.

  7. How did Khrushchev build up support in countries like Afghanistan and Burma?

    • Economic aid.

  8. What was the first satellite and when was it launched?

    • Sputnik, 1957.

  9. Who was the first astronaut to orbit the earth, and when did he do it?

    • Yuri Gagarin, 1961.

  10. When did Russia get the hydrogen bomb?

    • 1953.

  11. What was the military alliance set up by Khrushchev, and what countries were in it?

    • Warsaw Pact: USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania.

  12. Which American senator led a ‘witch-hunt’ for communists in America?

    • Joseph McCarthy

  13. What did NATO agree to in 1955 in West Germany?

    • A West German army of half a million men.

  14. How did America spy on Russia?

    • U2 planes.

  15. Name the FIVE crises after 1955.

  16. Who led the Polish riots of 1956?

    • Railway workers

  17. Which Polish Communist kept control of Poland?

    • Gomulka

  18. List the FIVE reasons for the Hungarian uprising.

  19. Who rioted in Hungary on 23 October 1956, and what did they do?

    • Smashed Stalin’s statue, attacked the AVH and Russian soldiers.

  20. Who became the Prime Minister of Hungary?

    • Imre Nagy

  21. What FOUR reforms did the rebels order?

  22. What FIVE reasons led Russia to send in the tanks? Which was the most important?

    • Hungary wanted to leave the Warsaw Pact: this was the most important.

    • China asked Russia to act

    • Hungary seemed to be turning capitalist

    • Hard-line Communists in the Russian government

    • Khrushchev realised the West would not help.

  23. How many tanks invaded Budapest.

    • 1000

  24. Why did Britain and France not help Hungary?

  25. Who was the President of America in 1956? Why did he not help Hungary?

    • Eisenhower. He did not think Hungary worth a war.

  26. Why did the UN not help Hungary?

    • Russia used its veto.

  27. Who did Khrushchev put in charge of Hungary?

    • Janos Kadar

  28. How many Hungarians fled to Austria?

    • 200,000

  29. What did Khrushchev demand from America in 1959?

    • That America withdraw from West Berlin.

  30. With whom did Khrushchev argue about kitchens in 1959?

    • American Vice-President Richard Nixon.

  31. What crisis began on 5 May 1960.

    • U2 crisis.

  32. Which summit meeting was ruined because of the crisis?

    • Paris Summit, 14 May 1960.

  33. Who did the Americans elect as their President in 1961?

    • John F Kennedy.

  34. Which two places in the Far East did Kennedy finance anti-communist fighters?

    • Vitenam and Laos.

  35. How many refugees had fled to West Berlin by 1961? Why was this bad for Russia?

    • 3 million:

    • It was an embarrassment because it showed Communism was NOT better for people.

    • Many of the people who fled were skilled workers.

  36. What did Khrushchev demand at the Vienna summit of June 1961?

    • That the Americans leave West Berlin.

  37. What date did Khrushchev begin to build the Berlin Wall?

    • 13 August 1961.

  38. Why did Khrushchev say he built the wall?

    • The Americans were using West Berlin as a base for spies and sabotage.

  39. When did Fidel Castro come to power in Cuba?

    • 1959.

  40. What did his 1960 trade agreement with Russia say?

    • Cuba sent sugar to Russia in return for oil, machines and money.

  41. What did Castro do to America companies in 1961 which angered America?

    • Nationalised them.

  42. What was the name for the failed invasion of Cuba in 1961. Why was it an embarrassment for Kennedy?

    • Bay of Pigs: although the CIA supported the invasion, it failed miserably.

  43. What did a U2 spy-plane discover on Cuba in October 1962?

    • Nuclear missile bases.

  44. What were Kennedy’s FIVE options, and which did he choose?

  45. What did Khrushchev accuse America of?

    • Piracy, and trying to destroy humankind.

  46. What deal was done between Kennedy and Khrushchev?

    • Khrushchev dismantled the Cuban bases publicly; Turkey dismantled the Turkish bases secretly.

  47. What event during the crisis (27 Oct) almost caused a nuclear war?

    • An American U2 spy-plane was shot down by the Cubans.

  48. What did the two leaders set up after the Missiles Crisis to prevent another such crisis?

    • A telephone ‘hotline’.

  49. What agreement began the thaw in 1963?

    • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

© John D Clare 2005

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