Classical antiquity

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The Close of the Ancient World

306- Constantine, emperor of Rome, carried on plan originally envisaged by

Page 17 337 AD Augustus, to provide the great empire with an eastern capital (as eastern part of empire then dominant in terms of population numbers and commercial activity.
326 Byzantium is chosen as new capital (in preference to Troy and Alexandria) and renamed Constantinople (330).
395 Empire divided into East and West Rome Capital of West Roman Empire from 404 Ravenna]; Constantinople capital of East Roman or Byzantine Empire.
476 Western Roman Empire falls and Constantinople assumes control over the diminishing remains of Roman Empire for another ten centuries. Finally, defeated by Turks in 1453.
622 Period of Antiquity brought to an end with rise of Islam, as an important power in the Mediterranean and Oriental worlds. Upon fall of Rome, centre of gravity of urbanization shifts from the Mediterranean to the Islamic world and to Asia (China and India.

Map of Byzantine Empire under Emperor Justinian
Bibliography Part 3: Classical Antiquity Rome
Principal references are shown in bold.
Bacon, E. (1967), Design of Cities, London, Thames & Hudson, pp. 68-77.
Balsdon, JP, Roman Civilisation, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books. Barrow, RH. (1949), The Romans, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.

Page 18 Bell, C. & Bell, R. (1969) City Fathers The Early History of Town Planning in Britain, London, Barrie & Rockliff: the Cresset Press, pp 7-12.
Benevolo, L. (1980), The History of the City, Scolar Press, London.
Carcopino, J. (1962), Daily Life in Ancient Rome, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.
Castagnoli, F. (1971) Orthogonal town planning in Antiquity, Cambridge MIT. Press, Chapter 6,
Collingwood, R.G. & Myres, J.N.L. (1937), Roman Britain and English Settlements, Oxford History of England Book 1, Oxford University Press.

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