Page 16 Wherever Rome colonized, it established its symbols i.e. theatres, arenas, forum, capitol, triumphal arches and regularly laid out dwellings districts. 2. The Idea of Architectural Monumentality 3. The Magnitude of the Planning Achievement Rome founded over 5,627 new towns and cities and built 140,000 km of roads, many have disintegrated since. 4. Rome's Contribution as an Organiser and Administrator Rome passed laws and regulations applying to everything and everyone 45 BC Lex Julia Municipalis, under Caesar which regulated street repairs and maintenance of dwellings 69-70 AD Decree of Vespasianus gave everyone right of claim to building site if owner failed to build on it. Rome seriously tackled the problem of regulating disputes between persons living side by side in an urban society and established principles of lasting value • all persons of same status enjoy equal rights • better for the guilty to go free than for an innocent to suffer The Weaknesses of Roman Planning • failed in its potential role as a 'teacher' and 'facilitator' of urban culture instead, it imposed its will and views on the conquered regions by force. • city plans inflexible and repetitive interior layouts rigid and formalized. • Roman cities could not cope with urban growth (physical expansion hence the canabae. • structural changes within cities proved crippling. The Role of Empires Refer to Gideon Sjoberg's argument that empires and cities are interdependent read "The Origin and Evolution of Cities" in Cities, pp. 25-39, a Scientific American Book.