ROMAN EMPIRE 27 BC - 395 AD 395 AD Empire divided into WESTERN EMPIRE 395 - 476 AD EASTERN EMPIRE 395 - 1453 AD ii. Planning During the Empire Development of Roman planning during rise of Empire, was characterised by in Rome and other large towns: ab STRUCTURAL CHANGE and ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS b) POPULATION GROWTH and URBAN EXPANSION Total Population in Roman Empire: 1st-2nd Century AD 3rd-5th Century AD Italy 7,000,000 4,000,000 Rome 350,000 65,000 Iberia 6,000,000 4,000,000 Egypt 4,500,000 3,000,000
Page 13 Alexandria 216,000 122,000 Syria, Palestine 4,400,000 3,000,000 Greece & the Balkans 3,000,000 3,000,000 Byzantium 24,000 150,000 Asia Minor 8,800,000 11,600,000 Source: Russell, J.C. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Volume 48, Part 3, Philadelphia, Pa. 1958. abroad: (c) ACTIVE PROCESS of URBANIZATION iii. Housing Types and Standards ab DOMUSb b) TABERNA (c) INSULA, CENACULA (d) VILLA Older Courtyard House [domus] from Pompeii
Page 14 Section of Insula with separate Cenaculae OSTIA: 'Casa di Serapid' Plan of Insula with separate Cenaculae OSTIA : 'Casa di Diana'
Page 15 DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE Events 200 AD Rome begins to crumble under the pressure exerted by Germanic Tribes to the north, and under internal rivalries and warfare. 211-217 AD Emperor Caracalla extends citizenship to all freemen of the Empire by which time it wasn't worth very much. War against the Parthians and Germanic tribes. Brought about severe economic crisis. Built the elaborate Caracalla Baths, in Rome. 218-235 AD Emperors Elagabalus (a degenerate) and Alexander Severus. Empire in crisis. 284-305 AD Emperor Diocletian. Reforms lead to absolutist autocracy run by hierachical public service machine. Persecution of Christians. 4th century AD Empire falls apart at the seams. 330 AD Emperor Constantinemakes Byzantium, his capital and the new centre of the Empire, named CONSTANTINOPLE. 395 AD Emperor Theodosius makes permanent the administrative separation of 330 AD. between the West and East Roman Empires. 410 AD the Westgoths conquer Rome. 455 AD the Vandals follow Rome sacked a second time Vandalism - a term coined by French Bishop Gregoire in 1794). 476 AD Western Roman Empire surrenders its power and breaks up into Germanic Kingdoms. Reasons 1. The enormity of the size of the Empire. 2. Romes colonies were not self-governing or self-sufficient. 3. The conquered barbarians turned on the Empirial Power and engineered its collapse. 4. Disruption of monetary system (silver coinage) 5. Corruption of Roman political, economic and social life. 6. Roman army in the provinces (largely composed of non-Romans) was unreliable and rebellious.