Classical antiquity

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Page 11
Aventine hills
- At this stage, Etruscans are still masters of Northern Italy, while the south is under Greek influence.
510 BC
- Etruscan King driven out by Roman nobility. Begin of Roman Republic and City's rise to fame and power. up to 270 BC
- Rome fully committed to establishing her mastery over Italian Peninsula.
- Gradual subjection of neighbours Rome grows in wealth and power but in size it is still smaller than
Tarquinia capital of Etruscans)
386 BC
- Gauls burn down city - only capitol withstands.
378-352 BC
- Romans rebuild their city earthen wall which had kept Gauls out now replaced by m high "Republican Wall.
- Military force improves in strength and quality.
338 BC
- Rome rules over other cities in central Italy (Latium): Etruscan power falls Greek colonies divided among themselves. Rome, triumphant, now rules area of 4,650 sq. miles (12,000 sq. km) and over
400,000 inhabitants. by 264 Rome achieves control over most of Italy and becomes largest state west of Greece.

Plan of Republican Rome

264-202 BC
Punic Wars Series of wars against Carthage in which Rome reaches out beyond Italy as its disciplined armies conquer on all fronts, e.g.:

Page 12 241 in Sicily
238 in Sardinia + Corsica
229 in Yugoslavia (Illyria)
225 in Northern Italy
206 inmost of Spain
Consequences of Wars
218-203 BC The bitter struggle against Hannibal was won in the end but the entire area of southern Italy was ravaged causing asocial revolution, which was later to contribute to Rome's fall.
146 BC Carthage and Corinth flattened Asia Minor conquered. Military successes provided Rome with abundant supply of land, gold, slaves etc. yet Rome could not readily adjust to the sudden wealth. Repeated attempts by Roman leaders, Tiberius and Gajus Gracchus, to make the lot of peasants and the landless class easier by introducing land reform and relief, failed. This led to :
The Civil Wars
121 BC introduction of Gracchan Laws (Gaius Gracchus.
84-82 BC Sulla versus Marius another bloody civil war.
73 BC Spartacus and 60,00 slaves and plebeians plunder Italy and march on Rome fora time, armed factions rule capital. Caesar versus Pompeius another civil war.
44 BC Caesar assassinated confrontation between his successors, Marcus Antonius and Octavianus.
31 BC
Octavianus triumphs returns to Rome to become Emperor Augustus (27 BC)

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