Classical antiquity



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Page 1 The University of Melbourne FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND PLANNING
705-117

CULTURE & HISTORY of URBAN PLANNING
Lecture Notes







©1999 C.M.Gutjahr

PART 3 -
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY
Rome


Comparison between Greek and Roman City Origins of Roman Planning
1.
ITALIC, ETRUSCAN and LATIN INFLUENCES a) The Religious Element In founding anew city, the Romans carried out four ritual procedures, which have been attributed to their Etruscan predecessors (or to the even earlier Terramare period. These rites accompanied the founding of military camps and cities and established Rome's formal planning concept
i.
Inauguratio
ii.
Limitatio
iii.
Orientatio
iv.
Consecratio b) The Military Element In the course of establishing and maintaining their authority, first in Italy itself and later throughout their vast empire, the Romans needed to build thousands of fortified legionary camps. For utilitarian reasons, such camps had to be of simple plan, quick to erect and set out and, generally, repetitive in detail and construction. The result was the standard, rectangular CASTRUM ROMANUM PLAN i.e. the Roman Camp Plan.
2.
GREEK-HELLENISTIC HERITAGE a) The Idea of the Castrum Plan b) The Spatial Concepts within the City The organization of urban spaces in Roman Planning derived from the
- Greek agora
- Hellenistic stoas
- vertical layout of such towns as Pergamon. (?) c) The Basic Architectural Concepts are also similar to Greek and Hellenistic examples
- courtyard house
- temples plus colonnades
- theatres
- building terms and stylistic features

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