Class Time Line: e-Portfolio Assignment Economic History of the U. S. – Econ 1740 Chapters 7-13



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Class Time Line: e-Portfolio Assignment

Economic History of the U.S. – Econ 1740

Chapters 7-13

1770-1790

Revolutionary War-

-An unordered 'shot heard around the world' begins the American Revolution.

-British set up blockage ports, made colonies become more self-sufficient



-A short-lived hyperinflation where the cost of goods rose because the U.S had to depend on their own resources.

-States printed money to finance the war

-200 million in continental money by congress

-150 million in Quartermasters of central Gov.

-200million in paper money of the state

Battle of Hubbardston- 

Delegates in Vermont- July 8: the Vermont Republic and adopted the Constitution of Vermont, which abolished slavery.

Articles of Confederation-

Labor Societies- 

Artisans in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston founded craft labor societies in the 1790s, the prototypes of modern unions.

January Publication of Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Unionthe Second Continental Congress appointed a committee of 13 to prepare a draft of the constitution for the union of the states. Benjamin Franklin drafted a plan of union.

July 2 Draft of the Articles submitted to CongressJohn Dickinson's draft of the Articles of Confederation is submitted to Congress for debate.

November 15, 1777, Congress completes the articles of Confederation: The final version of the Articles of Confederations adopted by Congress and submitted to the states for ratification; created to intendance for all 13 colonies.

July 9, 1778 Ratifying the ArticlesThe delegations from New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and South Carolina sign and ratify the Articles of Confederation.

Clothing, Food, Energy- 

1791:between 60-80% of nations clothes were homemade.

-Food processing was also done at home.

-Waterpower had not been utilized for textile production; it was mainly used for milling grain and cutting lumber.

-In towns artisan worked by hand, producing shoes, hats, pots, and tools.

The Declaration of Independence- 

July 4, 1776 U.S. declares independence: Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence put into effect, claiming its freedom from the rules of Great Britain.

Technology- 



1789: Samuel Slater a young mechanical wizard came to Rhode Island and agreed to reproduce equipment for spinning mill.

In 1782 Oliver Evan build a flourmill.

Industrial revolution began in the late 18th century in England, Idea of standardizing products originated in Sweden in the early 18th century.



1793: The cotton textile industry by Almay, Brown and Samuel slater was America’s first factory.

The Treaty of Alliance- 

February 6, 1778 Treaty of alliance signed with France: guaranteed that the U.S. would help the France if British broke their peace treaty.

Slavery Abolishment-

In 1780, the enslaved populations in the U.S. totaled nearly 575,000. As part of one of the great constitutional compromises, the nation’s forefathers agreed in 1787 to permit the existence of slavery but not to allow the importation of slaves after 20 years.

1772: Lord Chief Justice Mansfield rules that English law, thus laying the legal basis for the freeing of England’s 15,000 slaves, not support slavery. 

1774: The English Society of Friends votes the expulsion of any member engaged in the slave trade. 

1775: Slavery abolished in Madeira. 

1776: The Societies of Friends in England and Pennsylvania require members to free their slaves or face expulsion. 

1777: The Vermont Constitution prohibits slavery. 

1780: The Massachusetts Constitution declares that all men are free and equal by birth; a judicial de- cision in 1783 interprets this clause as having the force of abolishing slavery. Pennsylvania adopts a policy of gradual emancipation, freeing the children of all slaves born after November 1, 1780, at their 28th birthday. 

1784: Rhode Island and Connecticut pass gradual emancipation laws. 

1787: Formation in England of the “Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.” 

1794: The French National Convention abolishes slavery in all French territories. This law is repealed by Napoleon in 1802. 

1799: New York passes a gradual emancipation law. 

1800: U.S. citizens barred from exporting slaves. 

1804: Slavery abolished in Haiti. 

New Jersey adopts a policy of gradual emancipation. 



1807: England and the United States prohibit engagement in the international slave trade. 

1813: Gradual emancipation adopted in Argentina. 

1814: Gradual emancipation begins in Colombia. 

1820: England begins using naval power to suppress the slave trade. 

1823: Slavery abolished in Chile. 

1824: Slavery abolished in Central America. 

1829: Slavery abolished in Mexico. 

1831: Slavery abolished in Bolivia. 

1838: Slavery abolished in all British colonies. 

1841: The Quintuple Treaty is signed, under which England, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agree to mutual search of vessels on the high seas in order to suppress the slave trade. 

1842: Slavery abolished in Uruguay. 

1848: Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies. 

1851: Slavery abolished in Ecuador. 

Slave trade ended in Brazil. 



1854: Slavery abolished in Peru and Venezuela. 

1862: Slave trade ended in Cuba. 

1863: Slavery abolished in all Dutch colonies. 

1865: Slavery abolished in the United States as a result of the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the end of the Civil War. 

1871: Gradual emancipation initiated in Brazil. 

1873: Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico. 

   


A CHRONOLOGY OF EMANCIPATION, 1772–1888 

1772: Lord Chief Justice Mansfield rules that slavery is not supported by English law, thus laying the legal basis for the freeing of England’s 15,000 slaves. 

1774: The English Society of Friends votes the expulsion of any member engaged in the slave trade. 

1775: Slavery abolished in Madeira. 

1776: The Societies of Friends in England and Pennsylvania require members to free their slaves or face expulsion. 

1777: The Vermont Constitution prohibits slavery. 

1780: The Massachusetts Constitution declares that all men are free and equal by birth; a judicial decision in 1783 interprets this clause as having the force of abolishing slavery. Pennsylvania adopts a policy of gradual emancipation, freeing the children of all slaves born after November 1, 1780, at their 28th birthday. 

1784: Rhode Island and Connecticut pass gradual emancipation laws. 

1787: Formation in England of the “Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.” 

1794: The French National Convention abolishes slavery in all French territories. This law is repealed by Napoleon in 1802. 

1799: New York passes a gradual emancipation law. 

1800: U.S. citizens barred from exporting slaves. 

1804: Slavery abolished in Haiti. 

New Jersey adopts a policy of gradual emancipation. 



1807: England and the United States prohibit engagement in the international slave trade. 

1813: Gradual emancipation adopted in Argentina. 

1814: Gradual emancipation begins in Colombia. 

1820: England begins using naval power to suppress the slave trade. 

1823: Slavery abolished in Chile. 

1824: Slavery abolished in Central America. 

1829: Slavery abolished in Mexico. 

1831: Slavery abolished in Bolivia. 

1838-1854: Slavery abolished in all British colonies. 

1841: The Quintuple Treaty is signed, under which England, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agree to mutual search of vessels on the high seas in order to suppress the slave trade. 

1842: Slavery abolished in Uruguay. 

1848: Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies. 

1851: Slavery abolished in Ecuador. 

Slave trade ended in Brazil. 

Slavery abolished in Peru and Venezuela. 

1862: Slave trade ended in Cuba. 

1863: Slavery abolished in all Dutch colonies. 

1865: Slavery abolished in the United States as a result of the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the end of the Civil War. 

1871: Gradual emancipation initiated in Brazil. 

1873: Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico. 

 

 



Despite the constitutional restrictions on slave imports and the “gradual emancipation schemes” of the northern states, slavery did not die. After Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1793, mechanical means replaced fingers in the separation of seed from short-staple cotton varieties. Cotton quickly became the nation’s highest-valued commodity export, and output expanded. Most of the slaves moved to more cotton rich lands such as Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Eastern Texas. The plantation based on slave labor was the organizational form that ensured vast economical supplies of cotton.

 

 



The Treaty of Paris and the Treaty of Versailles- 

April 1782: Commons in France vote to end the war in America.  

September 3, 1783 Treaty of Paris and the Treaties of Versailles: Ending the revolutionary war King George III of Great Britain signed a treaty in Paris with representatives of the United States of and two treaties at Versailles with representatives of King Louis XVI of France and King Charles III 

January 14, 1784: United States Congress of the Confederation ratified the Paris treaty

Antebellum Period- 

1784-1865 - three natural gateways linked the western territories and states with the rest of the nation and to other countries as well. The first ran eastward connecting the Great Lakes to New York. The second, which was the Northeastern Gateway, was a network of roads, canals, and railroads from Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and Wheeling to Baltimore. The Southern Gateway at New Orleans was the main southern entre pot. 

Northwest Land Ordinance- 

1785-1787: The Northwest land ordinance of 1785- establish on unsettled land, horizontal and vertical lines called based lines called principal meridians mapped out the borderlines of these territories. The Northwest ordinance of 1787 provided that the Northwest Territory is to be organized as a district to be run by a government and judges appointed by congress.

Annapolis Convention- 



September 11-14, 1786: A national political convention held where twelve delegates from five states New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia. Gathered to discuss reversing trade barriers for each state.

Steam-Powered Vessel - 

September 1787: John Fitch builds the Steamboat, for the Delaware River in New Jersey.

1770-1790


Acts and Treaties from 1780’s to 1800’s- 



1788: New Hampshire Cast the ninth vote and finally votes in favor of the constitution

March 4 1789 Constitutions in Effect: still permitted slavery, still considered as property. British remained U.S. largest trade partners.

Treaty of 1794: The British agreed to evacuate the posts in the Northwest, and in August of that year, “Mad Anthony” Wayne and his forces defeated the Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

Act of 1796: 640 acres, minimum price per acre was then raised to $2.00; only a small amount of land was sold under this act before Congress changed the minimum acreage to 320 in 1800 and permitted the buyer.

1800- 1820


Louisiana Purchase- 

1803: The Territory of Louisiana, acquired in 1803 by purchase from France.

Rhode Island System- 

1806: they hired whole families, assigned father, mother, and children to tasks suitable to their strength and maturity, and housed the families in company-constructed tenements.

Embargo Acts- 

1807: Allowed foreign products to be sold in the U.S. However, this made it harder for people in the southern colonies to sell

Invention of the Steamboat- 

1807 - Robert Fulton and Robert R. Livingston built the steamboat Clermont, which then completed a historic voyage up the Hudson River from New York to Albany a distance of 150 miles in 32 hours. 

1811 - Nicholas Roosevelt constructed in Pittsburgh the first steamboat to ply the inland waters name the "New Orleans" it left Pittsburgh October 20, and completed its voyage to the Gulf of Mexico in a little over two and one-half months. 

Economy Change in the Early 1800’s- 

By 1810 the corporate organization was commonplace for banks, insurances companies, and turnpike companies, it was later used to make canals and railroads.

From 1810- 1860 total value of manufacture-increased form $200 million to under $2 billion.



Machinery in the Early 1800’s- 

In 1812 only in steam, engines of high pressure, was developed to be in use for power.



1814- Francis Cabot created the Waltham system.



  • Build the best power loom to date which contained spinning, weaving, dying and cutting; all the 4 stages of the manufacturing of cotton clothed occurred in 1 place, Specializing in coarse sheeting’s, it sold its products all over the world.



War if 1812- 

War fought by the United States and Great Britain allied with the Native Americans


1820- 1840

Erie Canal- 



1816: New York Legislation authorized the construction of the Erie and Champlain Canals. Canal Commissioner DeWitt Clinton promoted the Erie Canal with enthusiasm and sections were open to traffic as they were completed. It was apparent at that time; the canal would have great success even before its completion in 1825.

1826: Pennsylvania's answers to the completion of the Erie Canal was the mainline of the "Pennsylvania Public Works" which is a system of railroads and canals charted in 1826 by the legislature. 

Purchased Lands throughout the 1800’s - 

The treaty of 1818: The U.S. and Great Britain agreed to a joint of the Oregon Country and British Columbia.

1819: Florida is purchased from the Spaniards.

1845: The Republic of Texas is annexed as a state.

The Treaty of 1846: Established the dividing line at the forty-ninth parallel of the Oregon County.

1848 The Mexican Cession: Acquired by conquest from Mexico.

1853: The Gadsden Purchase, acquired from Mexico.

1867: The Alaskan Purchase acquired from Russia.

1898: The Hawaiian Annexation.

Equal Boarding Schools- 

1821: Fanny Wright and her followers proposed that the state establish boarding schools for the education of rich and poor children alike, where class distinction would be eliminated.

Productivity- 

1820: The piedmont of Georgia and South Carolina became the important cotton center.

1830: The Turnpike era began in 1789 with the construction of the Philadelphia Turnpike; it ended in 1830 after only a few private highways were attempted as business ventures. 

In 1827 drop forging with dies introduced.

By 1830, household manufacture decline due to industrialization and transportation.

After 1830 woolen factories began to adopt the Waltham system.

1837: the first plank road in the United States was built in Syracuse in 1837, and over the next 20 years several 1000 miles on plank roads were built, the heaviest concentration being in timber-abundant New York and Pennsylvania. 

1840: when Martin Van Buren set a 10-hour day for federal employees.

1840-1860


Commonwealth v. Hunt- 



1840: Hunt and other members of the Boston Bookmaker’s Society were hauled into municipal court for attempting to enforce a closed shop.

1842: Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw handed down a monumental decision that set a precedent on one point and opened the way to more liberal decisions on another. First, he held that a combination of union members was not criminal unless the object of the combination was criminal; the mere fact of organization implied that there was no illegal conspiracy. Second, he asserted the doctrine that union members were within their rights in pressing for a closed shop and in striking to maintain union security.

Money Problems- 

1840: The deep depression and the commercial crises of 1837 and 1839 caused financial chaos and nine states were forced to suspend payments on their debts (mainly bonds, many sold to foreigners.)  

1815-1843: During the Canal-building era it totaled about $31 million in investments, nearly three-quarters from government sources, mostly state governments. 1843-1860 a second wave of investments in the canals totaled in $66 million again mainly from state treasuries. 

California Gold Rush-



January 24, 1848: Only nine days before the war with Mexico ended, James W. Marshall discovered gold while building a sawmill for John Sutter on the South Fork of the American River.

1849: Americans made their fortunes for their owners by carrying passengers and fright during the gold rushes to California and Australia.  

Migration to the Golden Coast- 

1849: Almost 20,000 people left the East Coast by boat, destined for California, and nearly 40,000 arrived in San Francisco throughout 1849. From a population of about 107,000 near the end of 1849, California grew to more than 260,000 within three years.

Transportation and Manufacturing Improvements- 



1850: -the country, with all the rail investments, had 9,000 miles of railroads. 

-American sailing ships increased to 1,000 tons and vessels of 1,500 tons burden was not that uncommon. 

-The number and registered tonnage of steamships increased, that they almost entirely captured the passenger and high-value fright business.

-Steam engine was replacing water wheels.

-The anthracitic region to the east had achieved operation of furnaces and rolling mills.

- American factories were manufacturing arms clocks, watched and sewing machines.

The Graduation Act- 

1854: Provided for the graduated education of the minimum purchase price such tracts, to a point at which land that remained unsold or 30 years could be purchased for as little as $0.125 an acre.

Sawmills and Flour mill Increase- 

1860: there were 20,000 sawmill and 14,000 flourmills in the country.

1860: Sailing ships still carried the greater part of the world's international freight, but by this time it was clear that the ship era would advance into greater things.

Homestead Act- 

1860: Act the was passed, However, President James Buchanan, fearing that it would precipitate secession, vetoed it. Two years later, with the Civil War raging and the southerners out of Congress, the Homestead Act of 1862 became law.

Manufacturing Increase in America- 

By 1860

-New England industry had nearly 4 times spindles as the middle Atlantic industry and counted for nearly ¾ of the country’s output.

-The largest textile factories in the U.S were woolen factories.


  • 2/3 of America’s woolen was made in New England.

-U.S was second only to Britain in manufacturing.

  • The total manufacturing labor force was nearly 1,530,000 vs agriculture labor force 5,880,000.

Machinery, Tools, and Power- 



Between 1850 and 1860 the doubling of iron products and machinery shaped the Americas industrial future.

1860: Water was still the chief source of power.




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