Class set: do not write on write your answers on binder paper



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CLASS SET: DO NOT WRITE ON WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON BINDER PAPER.
Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact
In 1939, Hitler was preparing for war. Though he was hoping to acquire Poland without force (as he had when he annexed Austria in 1938), Hitler was planning to avoid a two front war. On August 23, 1939, representatives from Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union met and signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, which guaranteed that the two countries would not attack each other. In addition, under a "Secret Agreement", Germany would attack Western Poland. Additionally, the Soviet Union was going to invade and occupy Eastern Poland and the Baltic States. These new territories gave the Soviet Union the buffer (in land) that it wanted to feel safe from an invasion from the West. The pact was supposed to last for ten years; it lasted for less than two.
1. What is the primary reason Hitler had for signing this pact?

2. What other historical event was Stalin thinking about as he formed this agreement?


Document 1: Letter from Stalin to Hitler, August 25, 1939
To the chancellor of the German Reich, Herr A. Hitler:

I thank you for your letter. I hope that the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact will mark a decisive turn for the better in the political relations between our two countries.

--J. Stalin

3. What had relations been like between Germany and the USSR in the 1920s and 1930s?

Next, Hitler informs Mussolini on his new alliance with the USSR.
Document 2: Letter from Hitler to Mussolini, August 25, 1939
DUCE:
For some time Germany and Russia have been engaged in an exchange of views about a new attitude in regard to their political relations.
The relationship of Germany to Poland has become considerably more unsatisfactory since spring and in the last few weeks the position has become simply intolerable. The reports about the persecution of the Germans in the border areas are not invented press reports but represent only a fraction of the terrible truth.

Furthermore, disputes over the customs policy in the city of Danzig have punished German businesses.


The readiness on the part of the Soviets to work with Germany has become ever stronger in the last few weeks and has made it possible for me to send my Foreign Minister to Moscow to sign an agreement which is the most extensive non-aggression pact in existence.
I believe I may say to you, Duce, that a completely new situation in world politics has been produced which must be regarded as the greatest possible gain for the Axis nations. No one can say what the next hour may bring. I can only assure you there is a limit beyond which I will not be pushed under any circumstances.
--ADOLF HITLER

4. What problems does Hitler identify that are occurring in Poland?

5. In the last sentence, what do you think Hitler might be planning to do?

6. How is the tone of (A) and (B) similar or different?

Mussolini sends a message back:

Document 3: Letter from Mussolini to Hitler, August 25, 1939

FUHRER:

(1) Concerning the agreement with Russia, I approve of that completely. An agreement between Germany and Russia was necessary to prevent encirclement by the democracies.

(2) I consider it desirable to try to avoid a break or any deterioration in relations with Japan, since that would result in Japan's return to a position close to the democratic powers.

(3) As regards Poland I have complete understanding for the German position and for the fact that such strained relations cannot continue permanently.

(4) As for the practical position of Italy, in case of a military collision, my point of view is as follows:

(a) If Germany attacks Poland and the conflict remains localized, Italy will afford Germany every form of political and economic assistance which is requested.

(b) If Germany attacks, and Poland's allies open a counterattack against Germany, I want to let you know in advance that it would be better if I did not take the initiative in military activities in view of the present situation of Italian war preparations, which we have repeatedly previously explained to you. Our intervention can, therefore, take place at once if Germany delivers to us immediately the military supplies and the raw materials to resist the attack which the French and English especially would direct against us.

At our meetings the war was envisaged for after 1942 and at such time I would have been ready on land, on sea, and in the air according to the plans which had been arranged.

I consider it my implicit duty as a true friend to tell you the whole truth and inform you about the actual situation in advance. Not to do so might have unpleasant consequences for us all. This is my point of view and since within a short time I must summon the highest governmental bodies of the realm, I ask you to let me know yours as well.

--MUSSOLINI

7. Rewrite #2 above in your own words.

8. What is Mussolini's message to Hitler in (b)?

9. What does Mussolini want Hitler to do next?


WWII Has Started!!!
The next two documents are between two German officials.
Document 4: Telegram from the German Foreign Minister (in Berlin) to the German Ambassador in the Soviet Union, September 3, 1939-6:50 p. m.

Very Urgent! Exclusively for Ambassador. Strictly secret! Top secret. To be decoded by himself. Strictest secrecy!

We definitely expect to have beaten the Polish Army decisively in a few weeks. We would then keep the area under military occupation.

Please discuss this at once with Molotov and see if the Soviet Union does not consider it desirable for Russian forces to move against Polish forces in Eastern Poland and to occupy this territory. In our estimation this would be not only a relief for us, but also, in the sense of the Non-Aggression Pact, in the Soviet interest as well.

10. What does Germany want the USSR to do?


Document 5: Telegram from the German Ambassador in the Soviet Union to the German Foreign Office (Berlin), September 6, 1939-5:46 p. m.

Since anxiety over the fear of a German attack has strongly influenced the attitude of the Soviet population here in the last few years, the conclusion of a non-aggression pact with Germany has been generally received with great relief and gratification.


However, the sudden change in the policy of the Soviet Government, after years of propaganda directed against German aggressors, is still not very well understood by the population. The statements that Germany is no longer an aggressor nation runs up against considerable doubt. The Soviet Government is doing everything to change the attitude of the population here toward Germany.
The press is as though it had been transformed. Attacks on the conduct of Germany have not only ceased completely, but the portrayal of events in the field of foreign politics is based to an outstanding degree on German reports. Furthermore, anti-German literature has been removed from the book trade, etc.
The beginning of the war between Germany and Poland has powerfully affected public opinion here, and aroused new fear that the Soviet Union may be drawn into the war. Mistrust sown for years against Germany cannot be so quickly removed. The fear is expressed by the population that Germany, after she has defeated Poland, may turn against the Soviet Union. The recollection of German strength in the Great War is still everywhere.

11. What do people in the USSR think about the Pact?

12. What is the message in the last paragraph?

For decades, it was the official policy of the Soviet Union to deny the existence of the "Secret Protocol" to the Non-Aggression Pact. On August 23, 1989, two million people created a human chain to recognize the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Pact. In December 1989, a commission concluded that the protocol had existed and soon condemned and denounced them.






Last page of “Secret Agreement” (in German)



Stalin

Signing the Pact, August 23, 1939

German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop







Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov



DBQ: The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Name: Per:
Intro Questions:

1. What is the primary reason Hitler had for signing this pact?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
2. What other historical event was Stalin thinking about as he formed this agreement?

_______________________________________________________________________________________


Doc 1 Question:

3. What had relations been like between Germany and the USSR in the 1920s and 1930s?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
Doc 2 Questions:

4. What problems does Hitler identify that are occurring in Poland?

_______________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________


5. In the last sentence, what do you think Hitler might be planning to do?

_______________________________________________________________________________________


6. How is the tone of Doc 1 and Doc 2 similar or different?

_______________________________________________________________________________________


_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Doc 3 Questions:

7. Rewrite (2) above in your own words.

_______________________________________________________________________________________
8. What is Mussolini’s message to Hitler in (b)?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9. What does Mussolini want Hitler to do next?

_______________________________________________________________________________________


Doc 4 question:

10. What does Germany want the USSR to do?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Doc 5 questions:

11. What do people in the USSR think about the Pact?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12. What is the message in the last paragraph?

_______________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

13. Summarize the above Nazi-Soviet Pact using the political cartoon below.



[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]




Make sure you have:

+Thesis statement

+3 transition words

+Concluding thought at the end

+Spelling, grammar checked

POLAND




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




Signing the Pact, August 23, 1939

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