SOURCE 2: Roth, Ann Macy, ‘Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahri: Architecture as Political Statement’, in Roehrig, Catharine H., (ed) Hatshepsut: from Queen to Pharaoh, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Yale University Press, 2006, New York, 147–151
3 Fill in the following features/significance of Deir El-Bahri.
Identify each of the numbered parts of the plan of Deir El-Bahri and write a short description of each.
Deir el-Bahri – Third Terrace
Significance of the Decorative Program at Deir el-Bahri
According to Alison Roberts (Hathor Rising) the three terraces represent three aspects of Hatshepsuts’s relationship with Amun:
First terrace – ‘the Cult Ruler of Egypt’
• Scenes of the transportation of a pair of granite obelisks for erection at Amun-Re’s Karnak temple, emphasises Hatshepsut’s service to Amun-Re as monarch of Egypt.
Second terrace – ‘the Life Sphere’
• Hatshepsut’s divine birth as daughter of Amun-Re, her coronation, and suckling by Hathor in the Hathor chapel emphasise life-giving and nurturing aspects of Hatshepsut’s reign.
• Expedition to Punt shows how Hatshepsut provided for her people.
Third terrace – the creation realm
• Osiride structures and scenes on this level point clearly towards the renewal and rebirth of the dead in the afterlife.
• Location of Deir el-Bahri directly opposite Karnak temple on the east bank served to link Osiris’ realm of the dead with Amun-Re’s realm of the living.
An Egyptian temple was seen as a world in itself, whose centre lay at its innermost shrine and its decoration was arranged cosmographically.
• Main temple axis usually oriented to the east-west passage of the sun
• Decoration on the south side depicted the king wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt and smiting Nubians: on the north side he wore the red crown of Lower Egypt and defeated enemies from Asia.
Traditional temple decoration
• Exterior decoration near the entrance showed places farthest from the temple, including scenes of foreign wars or of hunting and fishing in the far deserts and Delta marshes.
• Such images represented the king’s mastery over chaos.
• Northern colonnade – long coronation inscription.
• Osiride statues in front of colonnades = king’s afterlife.
• Altars, chapels, shrines: central shrine to Amun; altar to Re (north side); double chapel of Hat and Thutmose I (south).
SOURCE: Roth, Ann Macy, ‘Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahri: Architecture as Political Statement’, in Roehrig, Catharine H., (ed) Hatshepsut: from Queen to Pharaoh, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Yale University Press, 2006, New York, 147–151
6 Write extended responses to one or more of the following:
a Explain the significance of Deir el-Bahri in the reign of Hatshepsut.
b Assess the significance of Deir el-Bahri in the reign of Hatshepsut.
c Explain the purpose of Hatshepsut’s building program.
d Assess Hatshepsut’s achievements as a New Kingdom pharaoh.