Civil War Review (Ch. 10) Name:______________________
On July 18, 1861, a cannonball ripped through the roof of Wilmer ______________ home as he sits down to lunch with a group of Confederate officers. On this secluded farm outside of _________________ Junction Virginia, ran a small stream called _________ _________, and the home of an important railroad junction, making the site a strategic location during the Civil War. There had been no major combat of the Civil War since the shelling of _______ ______________ South Carolina in April of 1861. That was about to change as the two armies gathered forces near his farm. Three days later, the First battle of _______ ___________ (named after the creek) began. For hours the battles raged on, but by midafternoon, the Union army was in full retreat, an embarrassing moment known as the “_________ ______________”. A year later, a second battle took place on the same farm, much more than the farmer had ever bargained for when he had retired to the peaceful and quiet landscape. This was just one of many Civil War stories, and McLean’s role in the war, was not over.
The Civil War was inevitable after the 1860 election of ____________ ________________. By April of 1861 when the Confederates fired on __________ _________________ in South Carolina, seven states had ________________ from the Union. In the months that followed, 8 northern slave states faced a difficult decision to join the other 7 or not. 4 of them joined, 4 (Maryland, Delaware, ________________ and Missouri) did not. The nation was formally divided between the Northern ____________ states and the southern __________________, and was braced for war.
As the war began, both sides were confident for a quick victory. The North had twice as many people and much more __________________, such as factories, a well-equipped naval force, and railroads, crucial for troop movement and supplies. The south was confident as well, fighting a ____________ war and had superior military leadership. They believed the Union would quickly tire of fighting and leave the Confederacy alone. More than __________ new soldiers enlisted, and believed the other side would collapse at the first “_____________ of __________________”. But the realities of the First battle of Bull Run were a harsh reality check.
Following Bull Run, President _______________ realized he had to plan for a long war, and along with General Scott, had developed the _____________________ Plan, to surround the south and squeeze the life out of them, using naval blockades and cutting off rail supplies to the south. Much of the plan was successful, but the Union was unable to take two major cities, ______________ along the Mississippi River, and the southern capital of __________________, Virginia.
After Union forces failed to capture the capital, the South went on the offensive behind General Robert E. __________. After crossing the Potomac River, General _______ forces clashed with Union troops at ___________________, just outside of Sharpsburg, Maryland. This battle became the bloodiest one-day battle in American history, with more than __________________ soldiers killed or wounded. Despite the enormous human cost of life, the battle ended in a ________________, in which neither side gained a strategic advantage, and the Confederate forces retreated back to Virginia. This became a major turning point of the war, as Lee had lost nearly ¼ of his army and had failed to strike a major blow in the north.
Lee’s failure had become opportunity for the President. Although the President opposed slavery, he had refused to make ______________ of slavery a war aim. “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union,” the President wrote, “ and is not either to save nor destroy slavery.” But to rally support for the war effort, President _______________ took that next step by issuing the ____________________ ______________________ and freeing the slaves in the states of rebellion. This linked slavery and a moral cause to the war for the north, while depriving the south of much of its workforce. But remember, this only freed slaves in the states that had seceded, not the states still in the Union. The Emancipation of slavery had little immediate effect on the war effort, but gave the Union a great moral purpose for victory.
In May of 1863, Grant laid siege to the Confederate stronghold of _______________, Mississippi. And on July 4 the Confederate army surrendered the town, gaining full control of the Mississippi River to the Union army and war effort. Meanwhile, another great Civil War battle was being fought at ____________________, Pennsylvania. General Lee had invaded the North for a second time, leading his 75,000 troops against 96,000 Union soldiers. The great battle would last three gruesome days, and on July 3rd, after losing nearly 1/3 of his army, Lee retreated once more. This was another major turning point in the war, as Lee would be forced to fight only a defensive war and he would never attack the north again. A few months later, the President would visit the battlefield where he delivered one of the great stirring speeches in American history known as the ____________________ ________________.
Following these two major battles, Union General ______________ S. ___________ adopted a policy of ___________ war, which called for doing whatever was necessary to undermine the enemy’s willingness and ability to fight. He led his forces to the Confederate capital of ______________, while General William Tecumseh _________________ would wage a southern campaign to destroy the south. This became known as ____________________ March to the Sea, as his troops destroyed everything of value they could find as the marched south to Atlanta and through the Carolinas. Grant captured the Confederate Capital on April 3, 1865 and on April 9, Lee and Grant met at _________________ Court House, in the Home of Mr. McLean (from earlier in the story), where Lee surrendered his army to Grant. McLean later stated, “the war started in my front yard, and ended in my parlor.”
The terms Grant offered Lee were generous. Confederate officers were able to keep their weapons and horses and return home. Lee graciously accepted.
Many questions arose during and because of the war. Fill in the blanks and answer the questions below.
Did the south have the right to ________________?
Did President Lincoln break the law by suspending _____________ _____________?
Was the _________ enacted by the north to recruit troops constitutional?
Why was the fighting in the Civil War so deadly?
How was medical care on the battlefield?
What did soldiers do between battles?
What role did African American’s play in the war effort?
What was the most famous African American Regiment? Why were the famous?