First shots to the Civil War are fired. Union General Robert Anderson surrendered to General P.G.T. Beauregard because they lack food and ammunition.
July 1861 First Battle of Bull Run, VA
First major battle of the war, and it was a Southern victory. This is where Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson got his nickname because a soldier was quoted as saying, “There is Jackson, standing like a stone wall.” Government put pressure on General McDowell to attack so the war would end quickly. Northern people decided to picnic and watch the battle. Confederate troops were well trained and had the Union army retreating shortly after the battle started. Battle took place 25 miles from Washington, D.C. McDowell took the brunt of the blame for the loss and was replaced by General McClellan.
February 1862 Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson (western Tennessee)
Northern victory – Ulysses S. Grant was commander of the Union army here. This was where he received his nickname “Unconditional Surrender,” after the battle of Ft. Donelson for not letting the Confederate soldiers off easy. He captured over 12,000 Confederate soldiers here. He was promoted to Major General after this battle. The capture of these two forts opened up the Cumberland River to Union forces.
April 1862 Battle of Shiloh (Tennessee)
Northern victory – Major General Grant defeated the Confederate troops under General Albert Sidney Johnston. Union had a force of 33,000 from western Tennessee and 32,000 from Ohio. The Confederates had a force of 45,000. This was the costliest battle as far as causalities up to this point with _23,476_, which is more than __Revolutionary__ War, War of 1812, and __Mexican War combined.
April 25 – May 1, 1862 Battle of New Orleans
Northern victory – Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans at the mouth of the _Mississippi_ River.
March 8, 1862 Monitor vs. Merrimac
Both were ironclad ships. One of the North’s first acts at the outset of the Civil War was the attempt to force the Confederacy into submission by blockading its ports. __Monitor_ was the first ironclad ship in U.S. history. __Merrimac_ was the Confederacy’s answer to wooden ships blockading their ports. Neither side won the battle. It was however a strategic victory for the Union because the south did not take away the blockade.
September 1862 Antietam, Maryland
Northern victory – This was the first of only two times that the South invaded the North. The battle was a _disaster_, because after Lee was defeated here, _England_, refused to help the Confederacy. Lee had 45,000 troops while McClellan had 87,000 troops. This was the bloodiest single day in American history. There were over __22,500__ causalities. More people died here then on D-Day or 9/11. After the battle, McClellan was relieved from his duties for being to __passive_.
January 1, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation
The importance of this document was that it now officially made the war a war to end slavery. It did not free the slaves in the Border States (for fear these states would secede), but it freed slaves in states at war with the United States.
July 4, 1863 Vicksburg, Mississippi
Northern victory – By capturing this city, the Union now had control of the Mississippi River. The South was split after the Vicksburg campaign. __Grant__ led the attack and wanted the unconditional surrender of the Confederate forces, but later decided he didn’t have to transport __29,495__ troops to prison camps. So he paroled them.
July 1-4, 1863 Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Northern victory – General _Meade_ vs. General __Lee__ -- This was the second and final time that South would invade the North. The South was so heavily defeated that Lee’s army would never be strong enough to attack the North again. Confederate General George Pickett led 15,000 troops in the unsuccessful Pickett’s charge. (Hilly areas around the valley battleground were named McPherson Ridge, Seminary Ridge, _Little Round Top_, and Cemetery Ridge.)