1. Battle of Bull Run (Battle of Manassas): July 1861—
2. McClellan would attack Richmond (March and April 1862) –fails
Total War was instituted by General John Pope of the Union
3. Second Battle of Bull Run (August 1862) - General Pope and Lee (of the South)
Lee wanted to show major world powers the strength of the South in the hope they would send aid
Pushed Pope to DC
4. Battle of Antietam, Maryland (Sept 1862) – McClellan and Lee
More men were killed on this one day than on any other in the Civil War: 13,000 for the South and 12,000 for the North.
Lee lost 1/3 of his army and withdrew from Maryland.
Considered a turning point in the war.
September 1862 – Lincoln give ultimatum to South… unless they return to the Union by January 01, 1863, he would declare their slaves “forever free”.
January 01, 1863 Lincoln issue “Emancipation Proclamation”…freed slaves in areas of rebellion, exempted slaves in border states and in former Confederate area conquered by the Union.
5. Battle of Chancellorsville, VA (May 1863) – Jackson’s troops assaulted Hooker’s troops
Rebs were outnumbered, but the surprise attack was a success!
6. Battle of Gettysburg, PA (July 1863) – Union troops led by General George G. Meade and South led by Lee – Union victory, but Lee and his troops allowed to escape.
Lincoln would give Gettysburg address at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg on Nov. 19, 1863
7. Battle of Vicksburg, MS (ended 4 July 1863) –Union troops were led by Ulysses S. Grant and defeated General John C. Pemberton’s Confederates
Union gained control of the Mississippi River
Late in 1863 Britain and France had decided NOT to intervene in the American war.
8. Sherman’s march to the sea from Chattanooga to Savannah (1864-1865)—Grant and Lincoln planned to have Sherman cut off Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia from the rest of the Confederacy and inflict maximum damage…make war so bad for civilians they beg for the war to be over (total war).
Shock and awe tactics…troops lived off the land to move faster
Sherman arrived in Savannah on Dec. 21, 1865
Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery, January 31, 1865.
March 4, 1865 Lincoln is sworn in for the second time as President of the US
9. On 2 April, 1865 Richmond fell to the Union
10. April 9, 1865 Lee is met by Grant at Appomattox Court House and surrendered.
April 14, Lincoln assassinated at Ford’s Theatre.