Civil Rights Movement The Civil Right Movement was a



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Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Right Movement was a political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for African American and to achieve racial equality. The civil rights movement was first and foremost a challenge to segregation, the system of laws and customs separating blacks and whites that whites used to control blacks after slavery was abolished in the 1860s
The Civil Rights movement gains power in the 1950’s & 1960’s for 4 reasons:


  1. Reaction to the atrocities observed during WWII (Holocaust)

  2. Movement of African Americans into the city & the acquiring of wealth.

  3. The emergence of powerful leaders:

  4. T.V./national media

*1950’s





  • 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (Supreme court case)

Overturns Plessey vs. Ferguson (separate but equal is legal)

Thurgood Marshall was the chief lawyer for the NAACP

Separate but equal is now illegal

Conflict between state rights & federal government

Schools are thus desegregated


  • 1955 Montgomery bus boycott

Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus & is arrested

Blacks are outraged & unite against the bus company



Martin Luther King Jr. spearheads the boycott

After 13 months Supreme Court rules that segregated buses are illegal




  • 1957 Little Rock Nine

Arkansas fights desegregation

Nine black students scheduled to attend Central High School



Governor Orval Faubus calls out National Guard to stop them

President Eisenhower calls in the Marines

Students finally integrated into school
*1960’s


  • 1960 Greensboro Sit- In (protesting by sitting down)

Four black men are refused service at a lunch counter

They refuse to leave and continue their sit-in for weeks

Sit-Ins were a form of civil disobedience (the refusal to follow laws that are unjust)

The sit-ins gain national attention & spread throughout the country

Because they were losing lots of $$$ stores eventually lift the ban on serving blacks

Sit-Ins become a very effective form of protest




  • 1961 Freedom Rides

In 1960 the Supreme Court rules against segregated bus facilities

A group of civil rights activist (black & white) travel from Washington D.C. to New Orleans to test if buses were truly desegregated

In Alabama angry whites stoned & beat freedom riders

Freedom riders were arrested in Mississippi when they entered a “whites only” bus depot

In the end the Interstate Commerce Commission begins to enforce the new laws


  • 1963 Protests in Birmingham Alabama

Protest begin in order to attempt to integrate public facilities & to gain better jobs

Protesters suffer at the hands of the state government



MLK is arrested (writes Letter from Birmingham Jail)

National media again shows police brutality on TV

Blacks win support & are given many equal rights


  • 1963 March on Washington

200,000 people (black & white) gather at the Lincoln Memorial for a rally for a new civil rights bill

MLK gives his famous “I have a dream speech”



President Kennedy promises to support the Civil Rights Movement


  • November 22, 1963 President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas

Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President of the United States

“Great Society”: Johnson’s plan to

  • reduce poverty

  • promote equality

  • improve education

  • rebuild decaying cities




  • 1964 Civil Rights Act

Banned discrimination in public places & buildings

Created the equal employment opportunity committee



Banned states from using different voter registrations for blacks & whites


  • 1965 Voting Rights Act

Banned all literacy test

Used federal registrars to register voters
After 1965 the Civil Rights Movement begins to slow down for four main reasons


  1. Too much internal struggle for power within the movement

Nation of Islam: Organization that wanted to fight integration and create a black America

Malcolm X: Leader of the Nation of Islam & was killed by his own people when he started to soften his position against whites

Black Panther Party (becomes violent)


  1. Trouble with “Northern whites” they simply chose not to accept blacks in their neighborhoods

People simply refused to sell houses to blacks

And some employers refused blacks jobs




  1. Race riots of 1967

164 riots in 1st nine months


  1. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated

April 4, 1968 in Memphis Tennessee (James Earl Ray)

Over 45 people are killed nationally in riots around the country


* Civil Rights Movement expands into an Equal Rights Movement for other minority groups
Women’s Rights

1963 Equal Pay Act passes and it guarantees equal pay for equal jobs between men & women.

The Feminine Mystique was a book by Betty Friedman that stressed greater opportunities for women.

The National Organization for Women fought for equal rights in all categories of life.



Equal Rights Amendment was an attempt to add an amendment to the Constitution but it never got enough votes.

Sandra Day O’Connor was the first female Supreme Court Justice.
Latinos

Largest group of Latinos come from Mexico

United Farm Workers under the leadership of Cesar Chavez fight for better work conditions & wages.

La Raza Unida fought to get Latinos elected to public office.

Puerto Ricans are Latinos who are American citizens who have been denied equality.

Cubans flee to the U.S., from Castro’s communist regime.
Native Americans

Native Americans are pushed off reservations and suffer severe economic problems.



Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968: Protected the Constitutional rights of all Native Americans & allowed them to make their own laws.

American Indian Movement (AIM) An organization that set up protests for more rights.
Americans with Disabilities:

Laws passed to support people with disabilities



    1. workplace

    2. schools

    3. community



Section #3 Notes


  • Sit-in becomes a very powerful form of protesting.

  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC

  • CORE- Congress of Racial Equality: Civil rights group that fought for equality

  • Freedom Rides: Rides on buses that tried to test Supreme Court’s decision to desegregate public buses. Went smooth until whites stoned & beat black riders in Alabama.

  • Though the freedom riders suffered they were successful in getting the Interstate Commerce Commission to enforce the Supreme Court’s decision.

  • Many Southern Universities struggle with integration. The Governors of Mississippi & Alabama blocked blacks from entering the school.

  • President Kennedy uses the military to force integration.

  • Spring 1963 Birmingham desegregation protest.

  • MLK arrested & writes :Letters from a Birmingham Jail”

  • National TV shows violence against blacks.

  • JFK gets on tv & talks of moral issue facing the country

  • August 1963 SCLC organizes a huge march in Washington D.C.

  • 200,000 people show up for nonviolent march

  • MLK gives his “I Have A Dream Speech”

  • Freedom Summer: The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination in hiring, and ended segregation in restaurants, theaters, and hotels.

  • Many states had poll taxes or other laws meant to keep blacks from voting.

  • Many Civil Rights workers go south and try to register black voters but are faced with violence.

  • SNCC organizes a voting protest in Selma but it turns ugly when white police officers beat black protesters.

  • President Johnson gets on tv & pushes for passage of the Voting Rights Act.

  • August 1965 Johnson signs into law the Voting Right Act which forces the south to get rid of anti-voting laws & this allows blacks to be voted into politics.

  • Malcolm X was a leader of the Nation of Islam who wanted to keeps blacks & whites segregated.

  • He later changed his ideas & wanted blacks & whites to coexist. Rivals didn’t agree with him & he was killed.

  • Stokely Carmichael advances the idea of Black Power: blacks should create their own culture & political institutions.

  • The Black Panther Party was a violent group that wanted to fight for change.

  • During the later 60’s many race riots break out across the country.

  • These riots culminate with the assassination of MLK in April of 1968.



Section #4 Notes: Other Groups Seek Rights
Women’s Rights

  • 1963 Equal Pay Act passes and it guarantees equal pay for equal jobs between men & women.

  • The Feminine Mystique was a book by Betty Friedman that stressed greater opportunities for women.

  • The National Organization for Women fought for equal rights in all categories of life.

  • Equal Rights Amendment was an attempt to add an amendment to the Constitution but it never got enough votes.

  • Sandra Day O’Connor was the first female Supreme Court Justice.


Latinos

  • Largest group of Latinos come from Mexico

  • United Farm Workers under the leadership of Cesar Chavez fight for better work conditions & wages.

  • La Raza Unida fought to get Latinos elected to public office.

  • Puerto Ricans are Latinos who are American citizens who have been denied equality.

  • Cubans flee to the U.S., from Castro’s communist regime.


Native Americans

  • Native Americans are pushed off reservations and suffer severe economic problems.

  • Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968: Protected the Constitutional rights of all Native Americans & allowed them to make their own laws.

  • American Indian Movement (AIM) An organization that set up protests for more rights.


Americans with Disabilities:

  • Laws passed to support people with disabilities

    1. workplace

    2. schools

    3. community

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