Civil Rights Integration & Brown v. Board of Education



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Civil Rights
Integration & Brown v. Board of Education:
1) The experiences of African Americans serving in the military forces during World War II

influenced their postwar decision to

(1) renew support for the principle of separate but equal

(2) join the armed forces in record numbers

(3) increase efforts to end racial discrimination

(4) move back to the rural south


2) “We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)


Which constitutional idea was the basis for this Supreme Court decision?

(1) protection against double jeopardy

(2) equal protection of the law

(3) freedom of speech

(4) right of assembly
3) “We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’

has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. . . .”

— Chief Justice Earl Warren,



Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
This quotation illustrates the Supreme Court’s power to

(1) uphold previous decisions

(2) overrule state laws

(3) check the powers of the executive branch

(4) provide for educational funding
Base your answer to question 4 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.

. . . I was disappointed not to see what is inside Central High School. I don’t understand why the governor [of Arkansas] sent grown-up soldiers to keep us out. I don’t know if I should go back. But Grandma is right, if I don’t go back, they will think they have won. They will think they can use soldiers to frighten us, and we’ll always have to obey them. They’ll always be in charge if I don’t go back to Central and make the integration happen. . . .”

— Melba Beals, Warriors Don’t Cry,

an African American student, 1957


4) President Dwight D. Eisenhower reacted to the situation described in this passage by

(1) forcing the governor of Arkansas to resign

(2) allowing the people of Arkansas to resolve the problem

(3) asking the Supreme Court to speed up racial integration

(4) sending federal troops to enforce integration
5) Which constitutional principle was tested in the cases of Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka?

(1) separation of powers

(2) popular sovereignty

(3) equal protection of the law

(4) separation of church and state
6) In 1954, the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka advanced the civil rights movement by

(1) guaranteeing equal voting rights to African Americans

(2) banning racial segregation in hotels and restaurants

(3) declaring that racial segregation in public schools violated the 14th amendment

(4) upholding the principle of separate but equal public facilities
Base your answer to question 7 on the statement below and on your knowledge of social studies.

. . . Whenever normal agencies prove inadequate to the task and it becomes necessary for the



Executive Branch of the Federal Government to use its powers and authority to uphold Federal

Courts, the President’s responsibility is inescapable. In accordance with that responsibility, I have today issued an Executive Order directing the use of troops under Federal authority to aid in the execution of Federal law at Little Rock, Arkansas. This became necessary when my Proclamation of yesterday was not observed, and the obstruction

of justice still continues. . . .”

— President Dwight D. Eisenhower,

September 24, 1957
7) The situation described in this statement grew out of efforts to

(1) uphold the Voting Rights Act

(2) pass a constitutional amendment ending poll taxes

(3) enforce the decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

(4) extend the Montgomery bus boycott to Little Rock
8) In 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to

(1) protect civil rights marchers

(2) help African Americans register to vote

(3) enforce a Supreme Court decision to desegregate public schools

(4) end race riots resulting from a bus boycott

Base your answer to questions 9 & 10 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.




9) Information provided by the map most clearly supports the conclusion that by 1964 racial

desegregation of Southern schools was

(1) failing in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kentucky, and West Virginia

(2) supported by most voters in the South

(3) occurring at different rates in Southern states

(4) completed by the mid-1960s


10) The school desegregation that is shown on the map was most affected by the

(1) decline of the Ku Klux Klan

(2) passage of the equal rights amendment

(3) expansion of voting rights for African Americans

(4) decision of the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka


Answers for Brown v. Board of Education & Integration:

1) 3 2) 2 3) 2 4) 4 5) 3 6) 3 7) 3 8) 3 9) 3 10) 4


Martin Luther King, Jr. :
1) “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.’

—Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington, D.C., 1963


Which step was taken following this speech to advance the dream of Martin Luther King, Jr.?

(1) desegregation of the Armed Forces

(2) ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson

(3) elimination of the Ku Klux Klan

(4) passage of new civil rights acts
2) “I would agree with Saint Augustine that ‘An unjust law is no law at all.’

— Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. “Letter From Birmingham City Jail”


This statement was used by Dr. King to show support for

(1) Social Darwinism

(2) Jim Crow laws

(3) separation of church and state

(4) civil disobedience
3) Martin Luther King, Jr. first emerged as a leader of the civil rights movement when he

(1) led the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama

(2) refused to give up his seat on a bus to a white man

(3) challenged the authority of the Supreme Court

(4) was elected as the first black congressman from the South
Base your answer to question 4 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.

. . . In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our



republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence,

they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note

was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the

unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.’ It is obvious today that



America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned.

Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check,

a check which has come back marked ‘insufficient funds.’ ”. . .

— Martin Luther King, Jr., August 28, 1963


4) The focus of this passage from Dr. King’s speech was his belief that

(1) equal rights for all were guaranteed by the founders of this nation

(2) Americans had become blind to racial differences

(3) violence was often necessary for the protection of civil liberties

(4) civil rights for African Americans would always be a dream

Base your answer to question 5 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.

. . . Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once? . . .”


  • Henry David Thoreau, 1849



. . . But the great glory of American democracy is the right to protest for right. My friends, don’t let anybody make us feel that we [are] to be compared in our actions with the Ku Klux Klan or with the White Citizens Council. There will be no crosses burned at any bus stops in

Montgomery. There will be no white persons pulled out of their homes and taken out on some

distant road and lynched for not cooperating. There will be nobody amid, among us who will

stand up and defy the Constitution of this nation. We only assemble here because of our desire to

see right exist. . . .”

— Martin Luther King, Jr., December 1955


5) Which statement most accurately summarizes the main idea of these quotations?

(1) Revolution is inevitable in a democratic society.

(2) Government consistently protects the freedom and dignity of all its citizens.

(3) Violence is the most effective form of protest.

(4) Civil disobedience is sometimes necessary to bring about change.


Answers for Martin Luther King Jr. :

1) 4 2) 4 3) 1 4) 1 5) 4



Legislation:

1) Filibusters were used by United States Senators from the South in the 1950s and 1960s to

(1) block passage of civil rights bills

(2) protest United States involvement in Vietnam

(3) override presidential vetoes of environmental bills

(4) gain approval of presidential appointments to the Supreme Court



2) The changes shown in the chart above were most directly the result of the

(1) enactment of voting-reform laws by these southern states

(2) Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education

(3) passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965

(4) executive branch’s resistance to protecting the civil rights of minorities
3) The federal voting rights laws passed in the 1950s and 1960s were designed to

(1) return control of voting regulations to the states

(2) remove racial barriers to voting

(3) extend suffrage to American women

(4) prevent recent immigrants from voting
4) The Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Fair Housing Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act were government efforts to

(1) eliminate restrictions on immigration

(2) end discrimination against various groups

(3) provide federal aid for children

(4) require equal treatment of men and woman
5) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed in an effort to correct

(1) racial and gender discrimination

(2) limitations on freedom of speech

(3) unfair immigration quotas

(4) segregation in the armed forces

6) During the civil rights movement of the 1960s, activities of the Congress of Racial Equality, the National Urban League, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored

People (NAACP) illustrated that

(1) all civil rights groups use the same tactics

(2) different approaches can be used to achieve a common goal

(3) organizational differences usually lead to failure

(4) violence is the best tool for achieving social change
7) The main goal of affirmative action programs is to

(1) enforce racial segregation laws

(2) secure equal voting rights for African Americans

(3) provide affordable child care

(4) promote economic gains for minorities and women

8) The main idea of this cartoon is that the elimination of affirmative action programs on some college campuses has

(1) improved race relations

(2) caused friction among white students

(3) reduced the number of minority students

(4) led to rapid increases in enrollment


9) The program that promotes preference in hiring for African Americans and other minorities to

correct past injustices is known as

(1) Title IX

(2) open admissions

(3) affirmative action

(4) Head Start



Answers for Legislation:

1) 1 2) 3 3) 2 4) 2 5) 1 6) 2 7) 4 8) 3 9) 3



Social:

Base your answer to question 1 on the lyrics below and on your knowledge of social studies.



Lyric A: . . . Father, father

We don’t need to escalate

You see, war is not the answer

For only love can conquer hate

You know we’ve got to find a way

To bring some lovin’ here today. . .

— “What’s Going On,” Al Cleveland, Marvin Gaye,

Renaldo Benson, 1971



Lyric B: . . . Yeah, my blood’s so mad

Feels like coagulatin’

I’m sittin’ here, just contemplatin’

I can’t twist the truth

It knows no regulation

Hand full of senators don’t pass legislation

And marches alone can’t bring integration

When human respect is disintegratin’

This whole crazy world

Is just too frustratin’. . .

— “Eve of Destruction,” P.F. Sloan, 1965
1) Which conclusion is most clearly supported by an examination of these song lyrics?

(1) In the 1960s and early 1970s, Americans shared common views on foreign policy.

(2) Social conflict existed over war and civil rights in the 1960s and early 1970s.

(3) The music of the 1960s and early 1970s supported government policies.

(4) Most songwriters of the 1960s and early 1970s used their music to advocate violent revolution.
Base your answer to question 2 on the speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of social studies.

Speaker A: “ It is more important now to focus on vocational training and economic



opportunities than on removing obstacles to social equality for African Americans.”

Speaker B: “The Constitution is color-blind and recognizes no superior class in this



country. All citizens are equal before the law.”

Speaker C: “The American Negro [African American] must focus on the achievement of three



goals: higher education, full political participation, and continued support for civil rights.”

Speaker D: “African Americans should return home to Africa to establish their own



independent nation free from white control.”
2) During the early 1900s, reform leaders tried to advance the goals of Speaker C by

(1) supporting passage of Jim Crow laws

(2) forming the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama

(3) avoiding attempts to overturn racial segregation in the courts

(4) creating the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

3) This poster was used during the

(1) abolitionist movement

(2) woman’s suffrage movement

(3) civil rights movement

(4) environmental movement
4) Which strategy did African-American students use when they refused to leave a “whites only” lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960?

(1) economic boycott

(2) hunger strike

(3) petition drive

(4) civil disobedience
5) In 1948, President Harry Truman showed his support for civil rights by issuing an executive

order to


(1) end the immigration quota system

(2) assure equal status for women in military service

(3) ban racial segregation in the military

(4) guarantee jobs for Native American Indians


6) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was intended to end

(1) loyalty oaths for federal employees

(2) affirmative action programs in education

(3) unfair treatment of the elderly



(4) discrimination based on race or sex

Social:

1) 2 2) 4 3) 3 4) 4 5) 3 6) 4


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