Citizenship, Ethnicity and Identity: British Pakistanis after the 2001 'riots'. ABSTRACT
There have been few studies of citizenship as an identity. This paper explores citizenship as an identity among British-Pakistanis in Bradford after the 'riot' in 2001 using qualitative data. The 2001 'riots', the political successes of the British National Party and the events after September 11th pushed British-Pakistani Muslims into the forefront of national political conflicts around citizenship, national identity and allegiance to the state. Through the analysis of interviews with both first and second generation British-Pakistanis we examine how citizenship as a mode of identity is contextualised by them in relation to national identity, Islam and ethnicity. We identify the two generations' different 'citizenship identities'. The second generation have a strong British identity as 'British citizen' with the 'natural rights' of a British born citizen. In contrast the first generation migrants from Pakistan express identities as 'denizens', living but not belonging in a foreign country who remain because their children are now 'British'.