It is tempting to interpret these recent differences between Ukraine and Russia as evidence of the two countries showing diverging trends. We would argue, however, that it is still too early to state this conclusion with certainty. The political situation in the post-Soviet world is still volatile, as witnessed by the recent revolutions in Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, and policies may change abruptly when a new regime comes to power. Until now these turbulent developments have all been moving in the direction of democracy and the rule of law, but there is no guarantee that these trends are irreversible. Seen in this light, the recent relaxation of the nation-building project in Ukraine may well be only a temporary phenomenon.
Interestingly, a report commissioned by the Council of Europe expresses doubts about the willingness of the post-Soviet states to support education for democratic citizenship (EDC), noting that most of them do not have explicit EDC policies. It further observes that EDC is challenged by “patriotic forces, which criticise democratic citizenship education for promoting simplistic universal values” (Froumin 2004b, p. 76). These forces, it argues, are more compatible with the traditional culture of an authoritarian society than the ideas promoted by EDC, and as a result EDC is relegated to the margins of citizenship education. The Council of Europe thus realizes that its EDC recommendations are not welcomed in all regional contexts, particularly when they conflict with nation-building projects.
In sum an education agenda promoting active citizenship and independent thinking faces considerable obstacles in new states emerging from totalitarianism such as Ukraine and Russia. In these states the adoption or rejection of the democratic citizenship principles is very much dictated by the whims of domestic political events and will depend in large measure on the confidence of the authorities in the national loyalties of their citizenries. In times of instability and challenges to central state authority a discourse stressing pluralism, democracy and autonomy is easily exchanged for a programme sanctioning conformity, loyalty and patriotism in the broad area of citizenship education.
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Documentory sources (in chronological order)
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O demokratizatsii vospitatel’noy deyatel’nosti v obcheobrazovatel’nih uchrezhdeniyah RSFSR [On the democratization of the up-bringing work of the comprehensive educational institutions of the RSFSR]. Collegium’s decision 24 January 1991
Zakon ob obrazovanii [Education Law], adopted 1992.
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Strategiya razvitiya istoricheskogo i obchestvovedcheskogo obrazovaniya v obcheobrazovatel’nyh uchrezhdeniyah [The development strategy of historical and social science education in comprehensive schools] Collegium’s decision 28 December 1994, no. 24/1.
O grazhdanskom obrazovanii i izuchenii Konstitucii Rossiyskoi Federacii [On citizenship education and the study of the Constitution of the Russian Federation]. The Ministry of Education letter dated 6 February 1995, no. 151/11
Gosudarstvennyi obrazovatel’nyi standart vysshego obrazovaniya. Special’nost’ 031200 – pedagogika i metodika nachal’nogo obrazovaniya [The state education standard of higher education. Specialisation no. 031200 – pedagogy and methodology of primary education]. Adopted 14 July 1995.
O grazhdansko-pravovom obrazovanii uchashchikhsia v obcheobrazovatel’nikh uchrezhdeniiakh Rossiiskoi Federatsii [On Citizenship and Legal Education of Students in Comprehensive Schools of the Russian Federation). The Ministry of Education letter dated 19 March 1996, no. 391/11.
Ob izuchenii prav cheloveka v obcheobrazovatel’nih uchrezhdeniyah Rossiiskoi Federacii v 1998/99 uchebnom godu [On the study of human rights in the comprehensive schools of the Russian Federation in the academic year 1998-9]. 1998.
Programma razvitiia vospitaniia v sisteme obrazovaniia Rossii na 1999–2001 gody [The Upbringing Development Program in the Russian System of Education for 1999–2001], Ministry of Education decree dated 18 October 1999, no.574.
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Gosudarstvennyi obrazovatel’nyi standart vysshego obrazovaniya. Special’nost’ 031200 – pedagogika i metodika nachal’nogo obrazovaniya [The state education standard of higher education. Specialisation no. 031200 – pedagogy and methodology of primary education]. Adopted 14 April 2000.
Gosudarstvennaia programma “Patrioticheskoe vospitanie grazhdan Rossiiskoi Federatsii na 2001–2005 gody” [State Program “Patriotic Upbringing of the Citizens of the Russian Federation for 2001–2005”). 16 February 2001, no. 122.
Ob ofitsial_’nikh ritualakh v obcheobrazovatel_’nikh uchrezhdeniiakh, sviazannikh s primeneniem gosudarstvennih simvolov Rossiiskoi Federatsii [On Official Rituals Related to the Use of State Symbols in Comprehensive Schools]. Ministry of Education letter dated 10 May 2001, no. 22-06-626.
Programma razvitiia vospitaniia v sisteme obrazovaniia Rossii na 2002–2004 gody [The Upbringing Development Program for the Russian System of Education for 2002–2004]. Ministry of Education decree dated 25 January 2002, no. 193.
Ob rekomendatsiiakh “Ob organizatsii vospitatel_’noi deiatel_’nosti po oznakomleniiu s istoriei i znacheniiem ofitsial_’nikh gosudarstvennikh simvolov Rossiiskoi Federatsii i ikh populiarizatsii [On Recommendations “About the Organization of Upbringing Activities Aimed at Familiarization with the History and Implication of Official State Symbols of the Russian Federation and Their Popularization”). Ministry of Education letter dated 1 March 2002, no. 30-51-131/16.
O grazhdanskom obrazovanii uchashchikhsia obcheobrazovatel_’nikh uchrezhdenii Rossiiskoi Federatsii [On the Citizenship Education of Comprehensive School Students of the Russian Federation). Ministry of Education letter dated 15 January 2003, no. 13-51-08/13.
Konseptsiia patrioticheskogo vospitaniia grazhdan Rossiiskoi Federatsii [The Concept of Patriotic Upbringing of the Citizens of the Russian Federation]. 2003.
Federal’niy komponent gosudarstvennogo standarta obchego obrazovaniya [The federal component of the state standard of comprehensive education]. Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. 2004.
3 It must be noted here that Ukraine is by no means an exception in the post-Soviet world for exchanging a communist for a nationalist-inspired account of history. Kissane (2005) has observed that the very same transformation has occurred in Kazakhstan. She argues that the Kazakh government is struggling to find a balance between a Kazakhified history curriculum, serving identity construction purposes, and a more internationally oriented history programme.
4 The Bologna process seeks to establish a European Higher Education Area in which the participating institutions issue comparable degrees, recognize each other’s diplomas and operate a system of accumulation and transfer of credits with the aim of increasing student and staff mobility.
5 All institutes of higher education have to teach these courses, regardless of their profile or status (public or private). The courses replaced a number of core disciplines from the Soviet era designed to impart Communist ideology.
6 In the Russian language the word “national” (natsional’nyi) bears two separate meanings. On the one hand, it is often applied to a particular ethnicity or nationality (natsional’nost’). When used in this way, the term does not imply all citizens of the country, but a particular ethnic group living on its territory. On the other hand, the word is also used exactly in the sense of the whole country. In this case, natsional’nyi is often applied to matters like national educational policy, national security etc.
7 Nelli Piattoeva’s interview with Eduard Dneprov in Moscow 27.5.2005.
8 Nelli Piattoeva’s interview with Igor Melnichenko 27.5.2005, specialist in patriotic education, deputy director of the Department of Youth Affairs at the Federal Agency of Education.
9 The Law on Education introduced a decentralised form of curriculum consisting of the compulsory federal component taking 75 percent of the overall curriculum and a combination of the regional and school components filling the rest of the curriculum. The regional and the school components gave local stakeholders a chance to enrich the curriculum with subjects and contents meaningful for their local environment, e.g. local languages, history, geography etc.
10 Previously, the last two grades of the upper secondary school offered lessons in literature and non in the linguistic proficiency.
11 Russia is a federal state, which is divided into 88 constituencies. Continuing the legacy of the Soviet Union, many of these constituencies are formed on the basis of the ethnic principle, i.e. they are seen as a homeland of one or more ethnic groups.