Chronology of Native American Land and Conflict Background

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1864-65: Cheyenne-Arapaho War in Colorado and Kansas. In 1864, Chivington's Colorado Volunteers kill more than 300 Indians in the Sand Creek Massacre.

1865: United States gives contract to Protestant missionary societies to operate Indian schools.

1866: Railroad Enabling Act takes Indian lands for railway use.

1868: Indians are denied the right to vote as a result of the 14th Amendment.

1869: Transcontinental railroad completed; the Union Pacific and Central Pacific join up in Utah.

1869-70: Smallpox epidemic among Canadian Plains Indian including Blackfeet, Pigeans, and Bloods.

1871: General Sheridan issues orders forbidding Indians to leave reservations without permission.

1871: White hunters begin wholesale killing of buffalo.

1871: Indian burial grounds invaded by whites seeking bones for manufacture of buttons.

1874: Gold discovered in South Dakota. Treaties protecting Indian lands ignored by miners.

1876-77: Sioux War for the Black Hills, involving the Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahos, under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. In 1876, the Battle of Little Bighorn and 268 US troops annihilated by the Indians..

1879: Richard Pratt founds the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, with the philosophy of transforming Indians and pushing them towards white culture.

1881: Sitting Bull and his band of 187 surrender to officials at Fort Buford, North Dakota.

1881-86: Apache Resistance under Geronimo in the Southwest. Geronimo surrenders in 1886.

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