1861-65: Civil War. Most tribes remain neutral. The South, however, makes promises to Indians concerning the return of their tribal lands to encourage their support. After the war, as punishment for their support of the Confederacy, the Five Civilized Tribes are forced to accept a treaty giving up the western half of the Indian Territory to 20 tribes from Kansas and Nebraska.
1862: Homestead Act opens up Indian land in Kansas and Nebraska to white homesteaders, who are deeded 160-acre plots after inhabiting them for five years.
1862-63: Santee Sioux stage an uprising in Minnesota under Chief Little Crow. In 1863-64, it spreads to North Dakota and involves the Teton Sioux as well. Thirty-eight Indians are sentenced and hanged.
1863-66: Navajo War in New Mexico and Arizona. In 1864, Navajo prisoners are forced on the "Long Walk" to Bosque Redondo. Manuelito surrenders in 1866.