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In 1917 there are seven foreign workers and a
Chinese p&tor, who supervises the church work.
There are a number of outstations; educational
work is carried on for both boys and girls, but the
main emphasis is laid on evangelistic effort.

CHINA. JAPAN, (etc., etc.) THE, published
annually from 1863 at the Daily Press Office, Hong-
kong. In 1876 the China Directory was incorporat-
ed with it. It is now entitled Directory and
Chronicle, etc.

CH'UAN CHOW&JH, often qalled Chin chew,
in Fukien, generally regarded as the Zayton of
Maeco Polo, though Phillips made out a very
strong case for Chang chou j$;Hi being Zayton.

Hence Khubilai Khan sent his expeditions to
Java and Japan, and here the Arabs traded. It
superseded Kanpu, and itself in turn gave place
to Amoy.

Yule : Marco Polo; Phillips : Two Mediaeval
Fukien Trading Ports, T'oung Pao, 1895-96.

CHUANG TZD gfc^, whose name was Ciiuang
Chou $£J3, was born about b.c. 330 in the state of
Liang, in modern Anhui, and was a contemporary
of Mencius. He was entirely devoted to the Taoist
philosophy and wrote the work which from a.d. 742
has been called The Holy Canon of Nan Huay
Nan Hua, in Ts'ao-chou fu, Shantung, being his
place of retirement. Many legendary anecdotes
are preserved illustrating his cynical wit. He spent
all his energy in glorifying Lao Tzu, and attacked
the Confucian philosophy with great skill. His
teachings were not much valued until later ages,
but rose to fame in the eighth century under the
patronage of the T'ang Emperor, HsiiAN Tsung.
See Nan Hua Ching; Taoism; Philosophy.

Suzuki : History of Chinese Philosophy;
Giles : Chuang Tzu, Mystic, Moralist and Social
Reformer; Legge : Texts of Taoism, (Sacred Books
of the East).

CHUANG YUAN JK to. The successful
candidates in the Chin-shih (q.v.) examination were
further tested in an examination held within the j
palace and therefore called tien shih |jg jft. The
student who came out at the head of the list was
called chuang yuan.

CH'UAN HSUELH P'lEN gj©j$ , a work on
education. See Chang Chih-tung.

made between Captain Charles Elliot and Kishen
in January, 1841, after the forts at Chuenpi and
Taikoktow, outside and on each side of the Bogue,
had been taken. It gave Hongkong to the British
Crown, an indemnity of six million dollars to the
British Government, allowed direct official inter-
course on equal terms, and re-opened Canton to

It was not acknowledged by either Government.
Kishen was degraded and sentenced to death (See
Kishen) ; Elliot was severely blamed because the
terms were quite inadequate. Six million dollars
would hardly pay for the confiscated opium and left
nothing for the expenses* of the expedition, or for
debts owing by the bankrupt Hong Merchants; the
cession of Hongkong was accompanied by some
conditions about payment of duties; and Chusan
was evacuated. The convention was disavowed,
Elliot was soon after recalled, hostilities were
begun again and resulted in the Treaty of Nanking.

CHU FAN CHIH R ff S » Cha0 Ju-kua's
work on Chinese and Arab Trade in the 12th and
13th centuries. See Chao Ju-kua.

CHU HSI 2fcH y the famous commentator and
expounder of the Confucian classics, generally
known as Chu Tzii. He was born in 1130 in
Fukien where his father (an Anhui man) was
holding office. Ho was a precocious child, and he
became a chin shih at 19. After obtaining office,
he studied Buddhist and Taoist teachings for some
years, and some say ho was actually once a Buddh-
ist priest; but later, under a profound philosophical
teacher, Li T'ung, he became an ardent Confucian
ist. He encouraged, however, a belief in future
retribution as beneficial for governmental purposes.
After holding various provincial offices, and being
several times summoned to Court to offer advice
on literary and governmental matters, ho was in
1180 made Governor of Kiangsi, whero he applied
himself diligently to carrying his theories into
practice. He was accustomed to retire from time
to time to the White Deer Grotto ftj&ifn) near
Killing, where he revived the so-called University.
With tho assistance of his pupils, he revised and
brought up to date Ssu-ma Kuang's great History,
adding notes and comments. His greatest work,
however, was done in connection with the Confucian
classics. His writings are very numerous, and
include an epitome of the teachings of his master,
T'ung. He died in 1200, and in 1241 his tablet
was placed in the Confucian Temple. He was
canonized as $C fig W£tf Li.

Chu Hsi's commentaries on the classics, and
exposition of the views of the Sung scholars, of
whom he was the chief, have been for subsequent
centuries the standard of orthodoxy, though in the
latter part of the Ch'ing dynasty a number of
scholars arose who threw doubt upon his doctrines..

He considerably modified the older Confucian
teachings; e.g., though on the onq hand he re-
affirmed the Mencian doctrine that man is by
nature upright and that( he can unaided attain
perfection, on tho other hand he pressed the
agnostic side of Confucianism unduly, perhaps in
his effort to get a consistent system out of disjointed


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