Date and Place of Birth: July 16, 1944, Beckenham, Kent, England.
Citizenship: British. U.S. Permanent Resident Visa awarded 1980 for "Exceptional Ability in the Sciences".
Marital Status: Married (20 March 1988).
1967: B.Sc. (Honours) in Biology and Chemistry. University of London.
1972. Ph.D. in Immunology and Cancer Research. University of London.
1985: D.Sc. in Cancer Immunology. University of London.
Honors and Awards:
1970: Elected to Membership of the Royal Institute of Biology, London.
1972: Ph.D. Thesis recommended for publication.
1973: Queen Elizabeth II Fellowship, Commonwealth of Australia.
1975: Special Fellow Award from the Leukemia Society of America.
1977: Scholar Award from the American Cancer Society.
1978: Scholar Award from the Leukemia Society of America.
1986 - Present. President and Scientific Director, Custom Monoclonals International.
1992 - 2000. Director of Scientific Research, Bio-Trends International, Inc.
1984 - 92. Member, and Director of the Department of Retrovirus and Immunology Research. Pacific Northwest Research Foundation, Seattle, W.A.
1984 - 86. Director of Antibody Research, IMRE Corporation, Seattle, WA.
1985 - 90. Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Comparative Medicine. School of Medicine, University of Washington.
1980 - 89. Adjunct Assistant/Associate Professor of Microbiology, New York State College Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University.
1977 - 84. Assistant/Associate Professor of Immunology. Dept. Cancer Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
1975 - 77. Research Assistant Professor of Oncology, School Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA.
1973 - 75. Queen Elizabeth II Fellow of Biomedical Sciences at the John Curtin School of Medical Research, Dept. of Immunology,
Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T., Australia.
1972 - 73. Postdoctoral studies. Royal Marsden Hospital,
Chester Beatty Research Institute, London, England.
1970 - 73. Lecturer in Cancer Research, University of London, England.
1968 - 72. Doctoral study at the University of London, Institute of Cancer Research. Thesis Title: Mechanisms of action of specifically immune lymphoid cells. Thesis advisor: Professor Peter Alexander. Thesis examiner: Professor N.A. Mitchison.
1967 - 68. Lecturer in Cell Biology, Thames University, London.
1962 - 67. Research assistant at the Chester Beatty Institute for Cancer Research, while studying for B.Sc. degree at Birkbeck College, University of London.
i. Retrovirus induced immunosuppression of host T-cell mediated immunity and coincident super-stimulation of host B-cell immunity. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) as a model for Human AIDS.
ii Development, production and functional applications for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against pathogens of domesticated animals.
iii. Roles for MAbs in:
a) development of vaccines including anti-idiotypic vaccines;
c) affinity isolation of purified target proteins, including large scale purifications
d) identification of epitope variations of pathogenic consequence.
iv. Development of MAbs against IgM, IgA1 and IgA2, IgE, and IgG subclasses of cats, dogs, horses, cows, pigs, sheep.
v. Development of hybridomas secreting cat antibodies to FeLV or FIV for theraputic purposes. Serotheraputic efficacy of passively transferred anti-retrovirus MAbs, fragments, and MAb-toxin conjugates.
Publications: 1. Denham S., Grant C. K., Hall J. G., Alexander P. The occurrence of two types of cytotoxic lymphoid cells in mice immunized with allogeneic tumor cells.
2. Grant C. K., Denham S., Hall J. G., Alexander P. Antibody and complement-like factors in the cytotoxic action of immune lymphocytes.
Nature, 1970; 227: 509-510.
3. Grant C. K., Avis P. J., Hall J. G., Alexander P. Evidence for the role of antibody in the cytotoxic action of lymph cells on xenogeneic target cells.
Transplantation, 1971; 11: 356-358.
4. Alexander P., Evans R., Grant C. K. The interplay of lymphoid cells and macrophages in tumor immunity. Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 1972; 122: 645-658.
5. Evans R., Grant C. K. Role of macrophages in tumor immunity: III. Cooperation between macrophages and lymphoid factors in an in vitro allograft situation. Immunology, 1972; 123: 677-687.
6. Evans R., Grant C. K., Cox H., Steel K., Alexander P. Thymus derived lymphocytes produce an immunologically specific macrophage-arming factor.
J. Exp. Med. 1972; 136: 1318-1322.
7. Grant C. K. Mechanisms of action of specifically immune lymphoid cells. Ph.D. Thesis published by the University of London, 1972.
8. Grant C. K., Currie G. A., Alexander P. Thymocytes from mice immunized against an allograft render bone-marrow cells specifically cytotoxic.
J. Exp. Med. 1972; 135: 150-164.
9. Grant C. K., Leuchars E., Alexander P. Failure to detect cytotoxic lymphoid cells or humoral blocking factors in mouse radiation chimeras.
Transplantation, 1972; 14: 722-727.
10. Grant C. K., Evans R., Alexander P. Multiple effector roles of lymphocytes in allograft immunity. Cell. Immunol. 1973; 8: 136-146.
11. Grant C. K., Ilbery P. L. T. Non-reactivity of incompatible lymphoid cells from F1 modified radiation chimeras to host tumor cells in vitro.
Biomedicine, 1973; 19: 56-60.
12. Grant C. K., Powles R. L. The cryopreservation of immunocompetent cells. Cryobiology, 1973; 10: 290-294.
13. Powles R. L., Balchin L. A., Smith C., Grant C. K. Some properties of cryopreserved acute leukemia cells. Cryobiology 1973; 10: 282-289.
14. Grant C. K., Alexander P. Non-specific cytotoxicity of spleen cells and the specific cytotoxic action of thymus-derived lymphocytes in vitro. Cell. Immunol. 1974; 14: 46-51.
15. Grant C. K., Glover D. J., Hall J. G., Alexander P. The nature of blood-borne cytotoxic cells: I. Cooperation between the white cells of the blood and lymph of sheep in the destruction of xenogeneic tumor cells in vitro. Transplantation, 1974; 17: 254-264.
16. Grant C. K., Adams E. P., Miller H. R. P. Leucocyte dependent antibody in sheep immunized with murine mastocytoma cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 1975; 5: 324-330.
17. Grant C. K., Adams E. P., Miller H. R. P., Morris B. Cytotoxic mechanisms detected in vitro following sheep renal allografts.
Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 1975; 53: 515-525.
18. Grant C. K., Adams E. P., Nass M. Appearance of cytolytic antibodies in sheep lymph following immunization with tumor cells: Identification of antibody subclasses. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 1975; 53: 381-387.
19. Grant C. K. Cameron B. Cytotoxic effector mechanisms detected in the central lymph of sheep following immunization with allogeneic or xenogeneic cell suspensions.
Cell. Immunol. 1975; 18: 58-69.
20. Klouda P. T., Lawler D., Oliver R. T. D., Powles R. L., Grant C. K. HL-A antibody response in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia treated by immunotherapy. Transplantation, 1975; 19: 245-249.
21. Grant C. K. A simple method for the cryopreservation of lymphocytes: Retention of specific immune effector functions by frozen-stored cells.
Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1976; 23: 166-174.
22. Grant C. K. Complement origin determines lytic activity of antibodies to nucleated target cells: Comparison of common complement sources.
Transplantation, 1976; 21: 323-330.
23. Jackson D. C., Grant C. K. Tumor cell lysis mediated by IgG or (Fab1)2 antibody fragments and complement. Immunochem. 1976; 13: 721-724.
24. Grant C.K. Complement "specificity" and interchangeability: Measurement of hemolytic complement levels and the use of the complement fixation test with sera from common domesticated animals. Am. J. Vet. Res. 1977; 38: 1611-1617.
25. Grant C. K. DeBoer D. J., Essex M., Worley M., Higgins J. Antibodies from healthy cats exposed to feline leukemia virus lyse feline lymphoma cells slowly with cat complement. J. Immunol. 1977; 119: 401-406.
26. Grant C. K., Worley M. B., DeBoer D. J. Detection of complement dependent lytic antibodies in sera from feline leukemia virus-infected cats by the chromium-51 release assay. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1977; 58: 157-161.
27. Holmberg C. A., Ellingsworth L., Osborn B. I., Grant C. K.
Measurement of hemolytic complement and the third component of complement in non-human primates. Lab. Animal Sci. 1977; 27: 993-998.
28. Madewell B. R., Grant C. K. Increased sensitivity of canine sarcoma cells to lysis with alloantiserum and complement after pretreatment of cells with doxorubicin-HCl.
Am. J. Vet. Res. 1977; 38: 333-335.
29. Essex M., Grant C. K., Cotter S. M., Sliski A. H., Hardy W. D. Jr. Feline Leukemia and immunological surveillance. In: Chandra P. ed. Antiviral mechanisms in control of neoplasia. Plenum Press. 1978: 427-441.
30. Grant C. K., Essex M., Pedersen N. C., Hardy W. D. Jr., Stephenson J. R., Cotter S. M., Theilen G. H., Lysis of feline lymphoma cells by complement dependent antibodies in feline leukemia virus contact cats: Correlation of lysis and antibodies to feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1978; 60: 161-166.
31. Essex M., Grant C. K. Tumor immunology in domestic animals.
In. Schultz R., Osburn B. eds. Advances in veterinary science and comparative medicine. Academic Press 1979; 23: 183-228.
32. Essex M., Grant C. K., Cotter S. M., Sliski A. H., Hardy W. D. Jr. Leukemia specific antigens: FOCMA and immune surveillance. In. Neth R., Gallo R. C., Hofschneider P. H., Mannweiler K. eds. Modern trends in leukemia. Springer-Veerlag (Berlin), 1979: 453-467.
33. Essex M., Sliski A. H., Worley M. B., Grant C. K., Snyder H., Hardy W. D. Jr., Chen L. B. Significance of the feline oncornavirus associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) in the natural history of feline leukemia. In. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium: Viruses in naturally occurring cancers. 1980; 7: 589-602.
34. Grant C. K. Tumor immunology. In: Theilen G. H., Madewell B. R. eds. Veterinary Cancer Medicine, Lea and Febiger, 1979: 39-55.
35. Grant C. K. Pickard D. K., Ramaika C., Madewell B. R., Essex M. Complement and tumor antibody levels in cats and changes associated with natural feline leukemia virus infection and malignant disease. Cancer Res. 1979; 39: 75-81.
36. Cotter S. M., Essex M., McLane M. F., Grant C. K., Hardy W. D. Jr., Chemotherapy and passive immunotherapy in naturally occurring feline mediastinal lymphoma. In. Hardy W. D. Jr., Essex M., McClelland A. J. eds. Feline Leukemia Virus. Elsevier North Holland, Inc. 1980: 219-225.
37. de Noronha F., Grant C. K., Essex. M., Bolognesi D. P. Passive immune serotherapy protects cats from disseminated FeSV-induced fibrosarcomas. In: Hardy W. D. Jr., Essex M., McClelland A. J., eds. Feline Leukemia Virus. Elsevier North Holland, Inc. 1980: 253-260.
38. Gardner M. B., Barbacid M., Rasheed. S., Grant C. K., Aaronson S. Humoral immunity in natural FeLV-exposed and experimental FeSV-inoculated house cats. In. Hardy W. D. Jr., Essex M., McClelland A. J., eds. Feline Leukemia Virus. Elsevier North Holland, Inc. 1980: l59-169.
39. Grant C. K. Weissman D., Cotter S. M., Zuckerman E. E., Hardy W. D. Jr., Essex M. Mechanisms of feline leukemia escape from antibody mediated immunity. In: Hardy W. D. Jr., Essex M., McClelland A. J., eds. Feline Leukemia Vvirus. Elsevier North Holland, Inc. 1980: 171-179.
40. McCarty J., Grant C. K. Cytotoxic effector cell populations in cats. In: Hardy W. D. Jr., Essex M., McClelland A. J., eds. Feline Leukemia Virus. Elsevier North Holland, Inc. 1980: 203-210.
41. Grant C. K., de Noronha F., Tusch C., Michalek M. T., McLane M. F. Protection of cats against progressive fibrosarcomas and persistent leukemia virus infection by vaccination with feline leukemia cells. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1980: 65: 1285-1292.
42. Cotter S. M., Essex M., McLane M. F., Grant C. K., Hardy W. D. Jr. Chemotherapy and passive immunotherapy in naturally occurring feline mediastinal lymphoma. Developmental Cancer Res. 1980; 4: 219-226.
43. Grant C. K., Essex M., Gardner M. B., Hardy W. D. Jr. Natural feline leukemia virus infection and the immune response of cats of different ages. Cancer Res. 1980; 40: 823-829.
44. Grant C. K., Harris D., Essex M., Pickard D. K., Hardy W. D. Jr., de Noronha F. Protection of cats against feline leukemia virus-positive and virus-negative tumors by complement-dependant antibody. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1980; 64: 1527-1533.
45. Grant C. K., Essex M. Immunity to feline leukemia and sarcoma virus-induced tumors. In. Blasecki J. W., ed. Mechanisms of immunity to virus induced tumors. Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1981: 119-180.
46. Doherty P. C., Zinkernagel R. M., Ramshaw I. A., Grant C. K. Rejection of allogeneic tumor cells growing in mouse cerebrospinal fluid: Functional analysis of the inflammatory process. J. Neuroimmunol. 1981; 1: 93-99.
47. Essex M., Grant C. K., Cotter S. M., Hardy W. D. Jr. Role of viruses in the etiology of naturally occurring feline leukemia. In: Neth R., Gallo R. C., Graf M., Mannweiler K., Winkler K. eds. Modern trends in human leukemia IV. Springer-Verlag. (Berlin) 1981: 483-487.
48. Grant C. K., Michalek M. T., Feline leukemia-unique and cross-reacting antigens on individual virus-producing tumors identified by complement-dependant antibody.
Intl. J. Cancer 1981; 28: 209-217.
49. de Noronha F., Grant C. K., Lutz H., Keyes A., Rowston W. Circulating levels of feline leukemia and sarcoma viruses and fibrosarcoma regression in persistently viremic cats. Cancer Res. 1983; 43: 1663-1668.
50. Grant C. K., Ernisse B. J., Jarrett O., Jones F. R. Feline leukemia virus envelope gp70 of subgroups B and C defined by monoclonal antibodies with cytotoxic and neutralizing functions. J. Immunol. 1983; 131: 3042-3048.
51. McCarty J. M., Grant C. K., Cellular immune response in the blood cells of cats is restricted to autochthonous sarcoma virus-transformed cells.
Intl. J. Cancer, 1983; 31: 627-631.
52. McCarty J. M., Grant C. K. Feline cytotoxic immune mechanisms against virus-associated leukemia and fibrosarcoma. Cell. Immunol. 1983; 81: 157-168.
53. Grant C. K., Ernisse B. J., Pontefract R. Comparison of feline leukemia virus-infected and normal cat T-cell lines in interleukin 2-conditioned medium.
Cancer Res. 1984; 44: 498-502.
54. Jones F. R., Grant C. K., Snyder H. W. Lymphosarcoma and persistent feline leukemia virus infection of pet cats: A system to study responses during extracorporeal treatments.
J. Biol. Response Mod. 1984; 3: 286-292.
55. Snyder H. W., Singal M. C., Ernst N. R., Grant C. K., Cotter S. M. Yoshida L. H., Jones F. R. Extracorporeal perfusion of plasma over immobilised Staphylococcus aureus Protein A as a treatment for FeLV infection and lymphosarcoma. Prospects for treatment of retroviral infection and AIDS in man. In. Salzman L.A. ed. Animal models of retrovirus infection and their relationship to AIDS. Academic Press 1986, 403-420.
56. Cotter S.M., Grant C.K., and Goldstein M.A. Treatment of naturally occurring feline leukemia virus infections with monoclonal antibodies. In: Proceedings. Am College Vet Intern Med. 1986; 13: 3-6.
57. Singal A. K., Singal M. C, Nudelman E., Hakomori S.-i., Balint J. P., Grant C. K., Snyder H. W. Presence of fucolipid antigens with mono- and dimeric X determinant (LeX) in the circulating complexes of patients with adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Res. 1987; 47: 5566-5571.
58. Abkowitz J. L., Holley R. D., Grant C. K. Retrovirus-induced feline pure red cell aplasia. Hematopoietic progenitors are infected with feline leukemia virus and erythroid burst forming cells are uniquely sensitive to heterologous complement.
J. Clin. Invest. 1987; 80: 1056-1063.
59. Elder J. H., McGee J. S., Munson M., Houghten R. A., Kloetzer W., Bittle J. L. Grant C. K. Localization of neutralizing regions of the envelope gene of feline leukemia virus by using anti-synthetic peptide antibodies. J. Virol. 1987; 61: 8-15.
60. Nicolaisen-Strouss K., Kumar H. P. M., Fitting T., Grant C. K., Elder J. H. Natural feline leukemia virus variant escapes neutralization by a monoclonal antibody via an amino acid change outside the antibody-binding epitope. J. Virol. 1987; 61: 3410-3415.
61. Shelton G. H., Abkowitz J. L., Linenberger M.L., Russell R. G., Grant C. K. Chronic leukeopenia associated with feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus infection in a cat. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1989; 194: 253-255.
62. Grant C. K., Shelton G. H. Biological Response Modifiers. In.Kirk, R.W. Ed Current Veterinary Therapy X. Small Animal Practice. W. B. Saunders and Co., Philadelphia 1989, pp. 507-513.
63. Shelton G. H., Kenneth D., McKim K. D., Cooley P. L., Dice P. F., Russell R. G., Grant C. K. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in a cat with lymphoma. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1989; 194: 249-252.
64. Shelton G. H., Waltier R. M., Conner S. C., Grant C. K. Prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in pet cats.
J. Am. Animal Hosp. Assoc. 1989; 25: 7-12.
65. Shelton G. H., Grant C. K., Cotter S. M., Gardner M. B., Hardy W. D. Jr., DiGiacomo R. F. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections and their relationships to lymphoid malignancies in cats: A retrospective study (1968-1988). J. AIDS 1990; 3: 623-630.
66. Shelton G. H., Linenberger M. L., Grant C. K., Abkowitz J. L. Hematologic manifestations of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) infections.
Blood 1990; 76: 1104-1109.
67. Shelton G. H., Grant C. K., Linenberger M. L., Abkowitz J. L. Severe neutropenia associated with griseofulvin therapy in cats with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus infections. J. Vet. Int. Med. 1990; 4: 317-319.
68. Reubel G. H., George J. W., Barlough J. E., Higgins J., Grant C. K., Pedersen N. C. Interaction of acute Feline Herpesvirus-1 and chronic Feline Immunodeficiency Virus infections in experimentally infected specific pathogen free cats.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1992; 35: 95-119.
69. Sheets R. L., Pandey R., Klement V., Grant C. K., Roy-Burman P. Biologically selected recombinants between Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) subgroup A and an endogenous FeLV element. Virology, 1992; 190: 849-855.
70. Celum C. L., Coombs R. W., Jones M., Murphy V., Fisher L., Grant C. K., Corey L., Inui T., Wener M. H., Holmes K. K. Risk factors for repeatedly reactive HIV-1 EIA and indeterminate Western Blots. A population-based case-control study.
Arch. Intern. Med 1994; 154: 1129-1137.
71. Grant C. K. Purification and characterization of feline IgM and IgA isotypes and three subclasses of IgG. In: Feline Immunology and Immunodeficiency, Eds. Willett B. J. and Jarrett O. Oxford University Press 1995, pp 95-107.
72. Grant C.K. Immunoglobulin changes associated with feline immunodeficiency virus infections. In: Feline Immunology and Immunodeficiency, Eds. Willett B. J. and Jarrett O. Oxford University Press 1995, pp 170-189.
73. Song W., Collisson E. W., Li J., Wolf A. M., Elder J. H., Grant C. K., Brown W. C. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from chronically infected cats are induced in vitro by retroviral vector-transduced feline T cells expressing the FIV capsid antigen. Virology 1995; 209: 390-399.
74. Hunt P., McConnell I., Grant C. K., Else R. W., Hopkins J. Variable expression of major histocompatability complex class II in the domestic cat.
Res. Vet. Sci. 1995; 59: 195-200.
75. Li J., Brown W. C., Song W., Carpino M. R., Wolf A.. M., Grant C. K., Elder J. H., Collisson E.W. Retroviral vector-transduced cells expressing the core polyprotein induce feline immunodeficiency virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from infected cats.
Virus Research 1995, 38: 93-109.
76. Simon, J. H. M., Fouchier, R. A. M., Southerling, T. E., Guerra, C. B., Grant, C. K., and Malim, M. H. The vif and gag proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 colocalize in infected human T-cells. J. Virol. 1997, 71: 5259-5267.
77. Kovacevic, S., Kipar, A., Kremendahl, J., Teebken-Schuler, D., Grant, C.K., and Reinacher, M. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of feline leukemia virus infection in formalin-fixed tissue. Eur. J. Vet. Path. 1997, 3: 13-19.
78. C. K. Grant. Cat Complement. Handbook of Vertebrate Immunology, Eds. Pastoret, P-P, Griebel, P., Bazin, H., and Govaerts, A. VIII Immunology of the Cat. pp311-312. Academic Press 1998.
79. Kipar, A., Kremendahl, J., Addie, D.D., Leukert, W., Grant, C.K., and Reinacher, M. Fatal enteritis associated with coronavirus infection in cats.
J. Comp. Path. 1998, 119: 1-14.
80. Lerner, D.L., Grant, C.K., de Perseval, A., and Elder, J.H. FIV infection of IL-2 dependant and independent lymphocyte lines: host cell range distinctions and specific cytokine upregulation. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1998, 65: 277-297.
81. Beatty, J.A., Lawrence, C.E., Callanan, J.J., Grant, C.K., Gault, E.A., Neil, J.C., and Jarrett, O. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-associated lymphoma: A potential role for immune dysfunction in tumourigenesis. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1998, 65: 309-322.
82. Chatterji, U., Grant, C.K., and Elder, J.H. Feline immunodeficiency virus VIF localizes to the Nucleus, J. Virol. 2000, 74: 2533-2540.
83. Kipar, A., Kremendahl, J., Grant, C.K., Von Bothmer, I., and Reinacher, M. Expression of viral proteins in feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis. Vet. Pathol. 2000, 37: 129-136.
84. Kiupel, M., Williams, B., West, K., Raymond, J.T., Glickman, L.T., and Grant, C.K. Retrospective Study: Epizootic Catarrhal Enteritis (ECE) associated with a Coronavirus in Ferrets: 120 cases (1993-1998). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2000, 217: 526-530.