Christianity: Chapter 7 Questions Part One: Constantine and Early Christian Thought



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Christianity: Chapter 7 Questions

Part One: Constantine and Early Christian Thought

To answer the following questions, read pg.215-218.


  1. According to the chapter's preview, why was Augustine of Hippo the "first medieval man and the last classical man"?


  1. Augustine emphasized the “absolute majesty of God, the immutability of God’s will, and the flawed state of _______________. He is best known for his philosophy of the latter concept, also called “original sin.” Thinking back to Judaism, what was original sin, and how did it happen?


  1. What is the topic of Augustine's Confessions?


  1. What new name did Constantine give to Byzantium? What did he intend his renamed city to be?


  1. When was the Council of Nicaea? When was the Council of Constantinople? What was the general purpose of both of these meetings?


  1. What fundamental issue was debated in the Arian controversy? Which point of view won out?

To answer the following questions, read the sections on “Augustine of Hippo” on pg. 218-222 and “Boethius” on pg 222.




  1. What famous line of prayer did Augustine write?



  1. What did Augustine’s “City of God” intend to convey about God’s will for humanity?



  1. According to Augustine's writing The City of God where does history begin and where will it end? How does this differ from pagan notions?



  1. What schism (split) occurred in 1054? Why?



  1. What major philosophical dilemma did Boethius set out to resolve in his Consolation?

Part Two: Constantinople's Ascension

To answer the following questions, read pg. 224-236




  1. Under whose rule did the city of Constantinople reach its highest expression of power? Who helped him to achieve his goal?


  1. Justinian revised and codified Roman law—what does it mean to “codify?” (Look it up, if necessary.) What did this codification become the basis for in later years?


  1. In what type of patronage was Justinian’s generosity to the church most clearly seen?


  1. What architectural innovation allowed builders to construct windows under the massive dome of the Hagia Sophia?


  1. What key natural element did builders want to bring into the Hagia Sophia?


  1. Describe tesserae. For what are they used? Why?


  1. What is depicted in the apse of San Vitale in Ravenna? Be sure to explain each figure.



  1. Who is depicted on the mosaics to the left and right of the apse, respectively?


  1. What factors led to St. Catherine's monastery becoming one of the richest repositories of ancient Byzantine art?



  1. What if the overall impression conveyed by religious icons? What artistic techniques give this impression?



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