Chemistry semester review Multiple Choice



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chemistry semester review

Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. Which field of science studies the composition and structure of matter?



a.

physics

c.

chemistry

b.

biology

d.

geology

____ 2. Which of the following would a chemist be most likely to study?



a.

a leaf floating on water

c.

a leaf being blown by the wind

b.

a leaf changing color in autumn

d.

a leaf being eaten by insects

____ 3. Which of the following best describes an example of pure chemistry?



a.

testing the effects of lower concentrations of a drug on humans

b.

studying chemicals containing carbon

c.

developing a cure for osteoporosis

d.

finding an antidote for a new strain of virus

____ 4. Which of the following statements is false?



a.

Knowledge of chemistry allows the public to make informed decisions.

b.

Studying chemistry ensures that officials make correct choices in funding technology.

c.

Knowledge of chemistry helps prepare people for careers in soil science.

d.

Chemistry explains many aspects of nature.

____ 5. Which of the following is NOT an example of chemistry research in the main area of energy?



a.

producing hook-and-loop tape

b.

determining the usefulness of oil from soybean plants

c.

developing rechargeable batteries

d.

studying the effects of insulation

____ 6. Which of the following is an example of a current research focus in chemistry?



a.

development of smoke detectors for common use

b.

using hook-and-loop tape in the clothing industry

c.

applying gene therapy to treat certain diseases

d.

studying coal combustion as an energy source

____ 7. Which of the following can be observed only in a microscopic view?



a.

foam insulation

c.

shape of a soybean plant

b.

X-ray of a knee joint

d.

structure of a muscle cell

____ 8. Which of the following was a major contribution to chemistry by Antoine Lavoisier?



a.

He showed that oxygen is required for material to burn.

b.

He demonstrated the presence of phlogiston in air.

c.

He encouraged scientists to form explanations based on philosophical arguments.

d.

He developed the science of alchemy.

____ 9. One characteristic of a scientific theory is that ____.



a.

it can never be proved

c.

it cannot be modified

b.

it can be proved

d.

it summarizes a set of observations

____ 10. Which step in the scientific method requires you to use your senses to obtain information?



a.

revising a hypothesis

c.

making an observation

b.

designing an experiment

d.

stating a theory

____ 11. Which of these steps should always be followed for effective problem solving?



a.

buying a larger quantity of material than estimated

b.

performing metric conversions

c.

developing a plan and then implementing the plan

d.

using a trial-and-error approach and then evaluating

____ 12. How do conceptual problems differ from numeric problems?



a.

Solutions to conceptual problems involve analysis, while numeric solutions do not.

b.

Logic is not usually involved in solving numeric problems.

c.

A plan is necessary to solve numeric problems, but is not necessary for conceptual problems.

d.

Solutions to conceptual problems normally do not involve calculations.

____ 13. Which of the following is NOT an example of matter?



a.

air

c.

smoke

b.

heat

d.

water vapor

____ 14. A golf ball has more mass than a tennis ball because it ____.



a.

takes up more space

c.

contains different kinds of matter

b.

contains more matter

d.

has a definite composition

____ 15. An example of an extensive property of matter is ____.




a.

temperature

c.

mass

b.

pressure

d.

hardness

____ 16. All of the following are physical properties of matter EXCEPT ____.



a.

mass

c.

melting point

b.

color

d.

ability to rust

____ 17. Which of the following is NOT a physical property of water?



a.

It has a boiling point of 100C.

b.

It is a colorless liquid.

c.

It is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.

d.

Sugar dissolves in it.

____ 18. Which of the following are considered physical properties of a substance?



a.

color and odor

c.

malleability and hardness

b.

melting and boiling points

d.

all of the above

____ 19. A vapor is which state of matter?



a.

solid

c.

gas

b.

liquid

d.

all of the above

____ 20. A substance that forms a vapor is generally in what physical state at room temperature?



a.

solid

c.

gas

b.

liquid

d.

liquid or solid

____ 21. Which state of matter has a definite volume and takes the shape of its container?



a.

solid

c.

gas

b.

liquid

d.

both b and c

____ 22. Which state of matter takes both the shape and volume of its container?



a.

solid

c.

gas

b.

liquid

d.

both b and c

____ 23. Which state of matter is characterized by having an indefinite shape, but a definite volume?



a.

gas

c.

solid

b.

liquid

d.

none of the above

____ 24. Which state of matter is characterized by having a definite shape and a definite volume?



a.

gas

c.

solid

b.

liquid

d.

all of the above

____ 25. Which state of matter expands when heated and is easy to compress?



a.

gas

c.

solid

b.

liquid

d.

all of the above

____ 26. All of the following are physical properties of a substance in the liquid state EXCEPT ____.



a.

indefinite volume

c.

not easily compressed

b.

definite mass

d.

indefinite shape

____ 27. Which of the following is a physical change?



a.

corrosion

c.

evaporation

b.

explosion

d.

rotting of food

____ 28. Which of the following CANNOT be classified as a substance?



a.

table salt

c.

nitrogen

b.

air

d.

gold

____ 29. Which of the following is a heterogeneous mixture?



a.

air

c.

steel

b.

salt water

d.

soil

____ 30. Which of the following CANNOT be considered a single phase?



a.

a pure solid

c.

a homogeneous mixture

b.

a pure liquid

d.

a heterogeneous mixture

____ 31. Which of the following is true about homogeneous mixtures?



a.

They are known as solutions.

b.

They consist of two or more phases.

c.

They have compositions that never vary.

d.

They are always liquids.

____ 32. Which of the following is a heterogeneous mixture?



a.

vinegar in water

c.

oil and vinegar

b.

milk

d.

air

____ 33. Which of the following is a homogeneous mixture?



a.

salt water

c.

sand and water

b.

beef stew

d.

soil

____ 34. An example of a homogeneous mixture is ____.



a.

water

c.

noodle soup

b.

stainless steel

d.

oxygen

____ 35. Which of the following items is NOT a compound?



a.

baking soda

c.

sucrose

b.

salad dressing

d.

table salt

____ 36. Which of the following is true about compounds?



a.

They can be physically separated into their component elements.

b.

They have compositions that vary.

c.

They are substances.

d.

They have properties similar to those of their component elements.

____ 37. Which of the following materials is a substance?



a.

air

c.

stainless steel

b.

gasoline

d.

silver

____ 38. What is one difference between a mixture and a compound?



a.

A compound consists of more than one phase.

b.

A compound can only be separated into its components by chemical means.

c.

A mixture can only be separated into its components by chemical means.

d.

A mixture must be uniform in composition.

____ 39. What distinguishes a substance from a mixture?



a.

Substances are compounds, and mixtures are not.

b.

Mixtures are groupings of elements, and compounds are not.

c.

Samples of the same substance can have different intensive properties.

d.

Mixtures can be separated physically, while compounds cannot.

____ 40. The first figure in a properly written chemical symbol always is ____.



a.

boldfaced

c.

italicized

b.

capitalized

d.

underlined

____ 41. Which of the following is used for chemical symbols today?



a.

drawings

c.

letters

b.

icons

d.

numbers

____ 42. Which of the following represents a compound?



a.

H

c.

H2O

b.

H-3

d.

O-16

____ 43. The chemical formula of a compound does NOT indicate the ____.



a.

identity of the elements in the compound

b.

how elements are joined in the compound

c.

the composition of the compound

d.

relative proportions of the elements in the compound

____ 44. What do chemical symbols and formulas represent, respectively?



a.

elements and compounds

b.

atoms and mixtures

c.

compounds and mixtures

d.

elements and ions

____ 45. Which substance has a chemical symbol that is derived from a Latin name?



a.

calcium

c.

oxygen

b.

hydrogen

d.

potassium

____ 46. Which of the following is a chemical property?



a.

color

c.

freezing point

b.

hardness

d.

ability to react with oxygen

____ 47. In the chemical reaction in which sucrose is heated and decomposes to form carbon dioxide and water, which of the following is a reactant?



a.

sucrose

c.

water

b.

carbon dioxide

d.

heat

____ 48. What must occur for a change to be a chemical reaction?



a.

There must be a change in chemical properties.

b.

There must be a change in physical properties.

c.

The change must involve a change in mass.

d.

The change must involve a change in volume.

____ 49. Which of the following is NOT a physical change?



a.

grating cheese

c.

fermenting of cheese

b.

melting cheese

d.

mixing two cheeses in a bowl

____ 50. All of the following changes to a metal are physical changes EXCEPT ____.



a.

bending

c.

rusting

b.

melting

d.

polishing

____ 51. Which of the following does NOT involve a physical change?



a.

mixing

c.

grinding

b.

melting

d.

decomposing

____ 52. Which of the following processes does NOT involve a change in chemical properties?



a.

rusting

c.

boiling

b.

fermenting

d.

burning

____ 53. A chemical change occurs when a piece of wood ____.



a.

is split

c.

decays

b.

is painted

d.

is cut

____ 54. Which of the following is a chemical property of water at 4C?



a.

its color

b.

its state

c.

its temperature

d.

its ability to decompose into hydrogen and oxygen

____ 55. What must be done to be certain that a chemical change has taken place?



a.

Check for the production of bubbles before and after the change.

b.

Demonstrate that a release of energy occurred after the change.

c.

Check the composition of the sample before and after the change.

d.

Demonstrate that energy was absorbed by the reactants after the change.

____ 56. When paper turns yellow-brown upon exposure to sunlight, what type of change is likely taking place?



a.

a physical change

b.

a chemical change

c.

neither a physical change nor a chemical change

d.

both a physical change and a chemical change

____ 57. Which of the following indicates that a chemical change has happened during cooking?



a.

The food darkens.

b.

Bubbles form in boiling water.

c.

Butter melts.

d.

Energy is transferred from the stove to a pan.

____ 58. Which of the following does NOT indicate that a chemical change may have taken place?



a.

fracture formation

c.

precipitate formation

b.

gas production

d.

energy transfer

____ 59. Which action changes the identity of the substance referenced?



a.

melting gold

b.

running an electric current through copper

c.

corroding iron

d.

breaking an ice cube

____ 60. What happens to matter during a chemical reaction?



a.

Matter is neither destroyed or created.

b.

Some matter is destroyed.

c.

Some matter is created.

d.

Some matter is destroyed and some is created.

____ 61. Which of the following is true for all chemical reactions?



a.

The total mass of the reactants increases.

b.

The total mass of the products is greater than the total mass of the reactants.

c.

The total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the reactants.

d.

The total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products.

____ 62. The diameter of a carbon atom is 0.000 000 000 154 m. What is this number expressed in scientific notation?



a.

1.54 10 m

c.

1.54 10 m

b.

1.54 10 m

d.

1.54 10 m

____ 63. What is the result of multiplying 2.5 10 by 3.5 10?



a.

8.75 10

c.

8.75 10

b.

8.75 10

d.

8.75 10

____ 64. What is the result of adding 2.5 10 and 3.5 10?



a.

2.9 10

c.

2.9 10

b.

6.0 10

d.

6.0 10

____ 65. Which of the following measurements contains two significant figures?



a.

0.004 00 L

c.

0.000 44 L

b.

0.004 04 L

d.

0.004 40 L

____ 66. When a test instrument is calibrated, does its accuracy, precision, or reliability improve?



a.

precision

c.

reliability

b.

accuracy

d.

all of the above

____ 67. Which of the following measurements (of different masses) is the most accurate?



a.

3.1000 g

c.

3.122 22 g

b.

3.100 00 g

d.

3.000 000 g

____ 68. Which group of measurements is the most precise? (Each group of measurements is for a different object.)



a.

2 g, 3 g, 4 g

c.

2 g, 2.5 g, 3 g

b.

2.0 g, 3.0 g, 4.0 g

d.

1 g, 3 g, 5 g

____ 69. Three different people weigh a standard mass of 2.00 g on the same balance. Each person obtains a reading of 7.32 g for the mass of the standard. These results imply that the balance that was used is ____.



a.

accurate

c.

accurate and precise

b.

precise

d.

neither accurate nor precise

____ 70. Which of the following measurements is expressed to three significant figures?



a.

0.007 m

c.

7.30 10 km

b.

7077 mg

d.

0.070 mm

____ 71. In the measurement 0.503 L, which digit is the estimated digit?



a.

5

b.

the 0 immediately to the left of the 3

c.

3

d.

the 0 to the left of the decimal point

____ 72. How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.003 4 kg?



a.

two

c.

five

b.

four

d.

This cannot be determined.

____ 73. How many significant figures are in the measurement 40,500 mg?



a.

two

c.

four

b.

three

d.

five

____ 74. How many significant figures are in the measurement 811.40 grams?



a.

two

c.

four

b.

three

d.

five

____ 75. Express the sum of 1111 km and 222 km using the correct number of significant digits.



a.

1300 km

c.

1333 km

b.

1330 km

d.

1333.0 km

____ 76. Express the sum of 7.68 m and 5.0 m using the correct number of significant digits.



a.

12.68 m

c.

13 m

b.

12.7 m

d.

10 m

____ 77. Express the product of 2.2 mm and 5.00 mm using the correct number of significant digits.



a.

10 mm

c.

11.0 mm

b.

11 mm

d.

11.00 mm

____ 78. What is the measurement 111.009 mm rounded off to four significant digits?



a.

111 mm

c.

111.01 mm

b.

111.0 mm

d.

110 mm

____ 79. What is the measurement 1042 L rounded off to two significant digits?



a.

1.0 10 L

c.

1050 L

b.

1040 L

d.

1.1 10 L

____ 80. Express the product of 4.0 10 m and 8.1 10 m using the correct number of significant digits.



a.

3 10

c.

3.2 10

b.

3.0 10

d.

3.24 10

____ 81. What is the volume of a salt crystal measuring 2.44 10 m by 1.4 10 m by 8.4 10 m?



a.

2.9 10 m

c.

2.9 10 m

b.

2.9 10 m

d.

2.9 10 m

____ 82. What quantity is represented by the metric system prefix deci-?



a.

1000

c.

0.1

b.

100

d.

0.01

____ 83. What is the metric system prefix for the quantity 0.000 001?



a.

centi-

c.

kilo-

b.

deci-

d.

micro-

____ 84. Which of the following units is NOT an official SI unit?



a.

kilogram

c.

mole

b.

ampere

d.

liter

____ 85. Which of the following volumes is the smallest?



a.

one microliter

c.

one milliliter

b.

one liter

d.

one deciliter

____ 86. What is the SI unit of mass?



a.

liter

c.

candela

b.

joule

d.

kilogram

____ 87. What is the temperature of absolute zero measured in C?



a.

–373C

c.

–173C

b.

–273C

d.

–73C

____ 88. Which temperature scale has no negative temperatures?



a.

Celsius

c.

Joule

b.

Fahrenheit

d.

Kelvin

____ 89. What is the boiling point of water in kelvins?



a.

0 K

c.

273 K

b.

100 K

d.

373 K

____ 90. Which of the following mass units is the largest?



a.

1 cg

c.

1 mg

b.

1 dg

d.

1 ng

____ 91. The weight of an object ____.



a.

is the same as its mass

c.

is not affected by gravity

b.

depends on its location

d.

is always the same

____ 92. What is the temperature –34C expressed in kelvins?



a.

139 K

c.

239 K

b.

207 K

d.

339 K

____ 93. If the temperature changes by 100 K, by how much does it change in C?



a.

0C

c.

100C

b.

37C

d.

273C

____ 94. Chlorine boils at 239 K. What is the boiling point of chlorine expressed in degrees Celsius?



a.

93C

c.

–61C

b.

34C

d.

–34C



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