Mr. Jones = farmer represents Tsar of Russia Nicholas II; The owner of Manor Farm, and once a strict and fierce master, Mr. Jones has in recent years become drunk, careless, and ineffective, though he remains as casually cruel and arrogant as ever.
Mr. Frederick – The owner of the neighboring farm of Pinchfield. A vicious, cruel, and calculating man, Frederick symbolizes the Fascist Germans.
Mr. Pilkington – The gentleman owner of the neighboring farm of Pilkington. A man who prefers recreation to farm work, Pilkington represents the Allies before World War II, particularly the British.
Mr. Whymper – The human that the pigs use as their connection to the outside world, Whymper symbolizes capitalists who got rich doing business with the USSR.
Pigs are Communists (4 total)
Napoleon = (pig) represents Joseph Stalin, leader of Soviet Union. prizes power over ideas, unlike Snowball. Napoleon is cowardly, shrewd, calculating, and selfish. he cares more about his own power than he does about the ideals of the revolution. His selfishness leads him to build a totalitarian government based on terror and lies that gives him more power over the other animals than Mr. Jones ever had.
Old Major = (boar) represented Karl Marx, father of Communism (a.k.a Animalism) He creates the ideas behind Animalism and inspires the other animals to rebel. Old Major's ideas inspire the animals' revolution, though Old Major dies before the revolution occurs.
Snowball = (pig) represents Trotsky , a rival of Stalin. He was exiled from the Russian people. Snowball is a more lively, original, and intelligent pig than Napoleon, but he is less shrewd in the ways of power.
Squealer = (pig) represents the Russian media or press, spread Stalin’s truth to the people. Squealer is a terrific speaker who prioritizes his personal comfort above all else. Whenever the pigs violate the tenets of Animalism, Squealer persuades the other animals that the pigs are actually acting in everyone's best interest.
Minimus– A pig who writes propaganda poems and songs praising Napoleon and Animal Farm. Minimus represents the takeover of art by propaganda in a totalitarian state that aims to control what its citizens think.
Horses are Workers
Boxer= horse represents the male working class, not the most intelligent, described as being faithful to pigs; Boxer is extremely honorable, though not so intelligent. Boxer believes deeply in the revolution, so much so that he thinks the Animal Farm leader, who also leads the revolution, must be virtuous and wise. One of Boxer's favorite sayings is "Napoleon is always right." Boxer has the strength to overthrow Napoleon's dictatorship, but not the wit to realize that it is a dictatorship. Boxer devotes all his strength to supporting Napoleon, yet when that strength finally fails him, Napoleon betrays him.
Clover – female horse represents female working class. She has neither the will nor the personality to resist the pigs. She becomes a witness to the corruption of the revolution as it turns into a totalitarian state, though she only vaguely understands that something has gone wrong.
Mollie = horse represents Russia’s upperclass and the selfish and materialistic middle-class.; she is very vain and self absorbed, faithful to Czar, not in favor of revolution but went along with it, missed attention from humans and flees the farm.
Benjamin – Donkey - . Guided by a skeptical philosophy that life will always be difficult and painful, Benjamin is not surprised when the pigs corrupt the revolution and transform Animal Farm into a totalitarian state. Though Benjamin's skepticism proves to be correct, it also makes him powerless. Alone among the other animals, Benjamin seems to understand what's going on, but he does nothing to stop it. In the end, his inaction comes back to haunt him when his dear friend Boxer is betrayed and killed. Benjamin represents those who were aware of Stalin's unjust and oppressive policies but did nothing to try to stop them.
Dogs = Army/Military (Russian KGB Secret Police)
Voted against rats & Rabbits as “comrades” and protect Napoleon; Jessie, Bluebell, Pincher, and the nine attack dogs provide the pigs with the brute force necessary to terrorize the other animals. In return, the dogs receive special privileges. The dogs don't rule, but they live comfortably. The dogs symbolize the Soviet secret police.
Birds are clergy and other non-labor groups
Moses the Raven = symbolized the Russian Orthodox Church; tame raven who constantly speaks about a beautiful place called Sugarcandy Mountain where all animals go when they die. Moses represents organized religion.
Sheep -Dumb animals who believe whatever propaganda is told to them and follow orders. The sheep represent the duped citizens of a totalitarian state. Chant often “four legs good, two legs bad”
Muriel– A goat. One of the few animals other than the pigs and dogs who becomes fully literate.