Chapters 1-3 Test – Study Guide key chapter 1 How Geographers Look at the World



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Chapters 1-3 Test – Study Guide KEY

Chapter 1 - How Geographers Look at the World

Exploring Geography & The Geographer’s Craft

____ 1. What are the two types of location that geographers use as reference points?

absolute and relative


____ 2. What is a formal region?

has boundaries determined by a common characteristic


____ 3. Why are maps useful to geographers?

Maps can show some information better than writing can.


____ 4. What do statistical data, such as census numbers, help geographers determine?

which factors in a given situation are most important.


____ 5. Why do geographers use history?

To help determine what places looked like in the past.


____ 6. What can geographic information on human activities help planners decide?

whether to build new schools.


____ 7. Which imaginary line divides the earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere?

Equator
____ 8. What is relative location?

the location of a place in relation to other places
____ 9. Which lines make up the grid system?

Longitude and Latitude

____ 10. What name is given to the study of the connections between people and their physical environment?

human-environment interaction


____ 11. On what does a functional region focus?

a central point and the surrounding territory linked to it.


____ 12. What does physical geography study?

the earth’s physical features


____ 13. What are some uses of geography?

making predictions about a population’s future water needs

determining how an ancient civilization spread

deciding where to build a new highway


____ 14. Why would a geographer be likely to read two population density maps?

to determine which area has the greater need for services


____ 15. What is another term for human geography?

cultural geography


____ 16. What do geographers study political science to learn?

how people in different places are governed.


____ 17. What do geographers use a grid system in order to identify?

the precise location of any place on Earth.


____ 18. How might migrants entering a long-established society affect that society?

may transform the society’s culture.


____ 19. When we say that a city is located at longitude 120°E, we mean that it is located east of which line?

the Prime Meridian.


____ 20. What does a human geographer analyze?

analyzes human aspects of culture.


Chapter 2 - The Earth

Forces of Change & Earth’s Water

____ 21. Land takes up about 30% of the earth’s surface.

30 percent


____ 22. What is the highest point on the earth?

Mount Everest


____ 23. Describe the earth’s inner core.

solid and extremely hot


____ 24. When does accretion occur?

When a sea plate slowly slides under a continental plate.


____ 25. What is erosion?

the wearing away of Earth’s surface by wind, glaciers, and moving water.


____ 26. What does the water cycle shows us about the amount of earth’s water over time?

moves around the earth but maintains a consistent total amount.


____ 27. What is a stream?

is a body of water that flows through land areas.


____ 28. From which 4 places does groundwater come?

rain,


melted snow,

lakes,


and rivers.
____ 29. Give 3 different examples of bodies of water:

seas,


gulfs,

and bays are bodies of water


____ 30. Give 4 different examples of major types of landforms:

mountains,

hills,

plateaus,

and plains.

____ 31. What is the deepest known depression on Earth?

Mariana Trench
____ 32. What are the four terrestrial planets?

Mercury,

Venus,

Earth,


and Mars
____ 33. Asteroids are found mainly between the orbit of which two planets?

the orbits of Jupiter and Mars.


____ 34. What is Pangaea?

a single massive supercontinent.


____ 35. What are faults?

Cracks in the earth’s crust are called faults.


____ 36. What surrounds the inner core of the earth?

a liquid outer core


____ 37. What is magma?

molten rock within the earth

____ 38. All planets (except Pluto) are grouped into which 2 categories?

terrestrial planets

and gas giant planets.
____ 39. When does Physical weathering takes place?

When large masses of rock are broken into smaller pieces.


____ 40. What are the three main layers of the earth?

core,


mantle,

and crust


Chapter 3 - Climates of the Earth

Earth-Sun Relationships, Factors Affecting Climate, & World Climate Patterns

____ 41. Which latitudes have the coldest climates on earth – high, mid or low?

Places located in high latitudes have the coldest climates on Earth.


____ 42. Explain how elevation and climate are related:

are very closely related.


____ 43. What covered much of the earth during ice ages?

glaciers covered much of the earth


____ 44. Which climate regions has the widest temperature range?

subarctic


____ 45. What role does the atmosphere play with regards to temperature?

keeps heat from escaping too quickly into space.


____ 46. In which 2 months do equinoxes take place?

March


and September
____ 47. What is the vegetation like in an oasis?

is a place in the desert at which there is water and lush vegetation.

____ 48. How does the earth’s tilt affect earth?

Because of the tilt of the earth, not all places receive the same amount of light at one time.


____ 49. What are prevailing winds?

Global winds that blow in fairly constant patterns are called prevailing winds.


____ 50. How long does it take the earth to make one full rotation on its axis?

one time each day.


____ 51. Describe the natural vegetation of a desert:

scattered shrubs

and cacti.
____ 52. How do wind patterns affect earth’s climates?

important factors in the earth’s climates.


____ 53. From what do the seasons result?

the earth’s revolution and its tilt in relation to the sun.


____ 54. What affects temperatures on the earth?

the earth’s position in relation to the sun

____ 55. What is the Coriolis effect?

Prevailing winds blow ____ because of the diagonally


____ 56. What are the two kinds of tropical climates?

tropical savanna and tropical rain forest


____ 57. Which latitude is the northernmost point on the earth to receive the sun’s direct rays?

Tropic of Cancer


____ 58. The earth’s polar areas lie in the – high, mid or low?

high latitudes


____ 59. What happens to the earth’s atmosphere as elevation increases?

thins as elevation increases.


____ 60. What does the rotation of the earth cause?

rotation of the earth causes day and night


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