Chapter30 True/False



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True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ 1. In 1971, East Pakistan decided to seek independence and took the name Bangladesh.

____ 2. The division of India into two nations peacefully resolved the religious conflicts that had plagued colonial India.

____ 3. In 1947, India became the world’s largest democracy when it won its independence.

____ 4. The Indian government has always supported militant Sikh minority leaders in the country.

____ 5. Ongoing struggles for power in Sri Lanka resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands of people are based on religious and ethnic differences.

____ 6. The peace talks held in 1954 to decide Vietnam’s future reflected Cold War tensions.

____ 7. Without U.S. military support, the South Vietnamese government fell to North Vietnam.

____ 8. Only after Vietnam allowed free elections and did away with its Communist government, did the United States formally recognize united Vietnam and resume a trading relationship.

____ 9. Cambodia is now a constitutional monarchy with a democratically-elected parliament.

____ 10. In the first years of Communist rule, China’s economy thrived, rural poverty declined, and literacy rates and public health improved.

____ 11. In the 1960s, militant students called the Red Guards traveled through China’s cities and villages, torturing and killing people they believed to be politically corrupt.

____ 12. China was closely allied with the Soviet Union throughout the 1960s.

____ 13. After the death of Mao Zedong, the Chinese government put stricter economic policies in place and completely shut down political dissent by sending opposition leaders to labor camps.

____ 14. The rebuilding process in Japan had three basic steps: demilitarizing Japan, building a democratic government, and establishing an economy that could support a peaceful and democratic Japan.

____ 15. The Liberal Democratic Party, with an anti-U.S. foreign policy, advocated socialist reforms in post-war Japan.

____ 16. Despite economic problems, South Korea devoted spending to heavy industry and the military.

____ 17. Asian Tigers focused on achieving economic growth through exports of low-cost consumer goods to the United States.

____ 18. The goal of Ho Chi Minh was the expansion of communism throughout Indochina.

____ 19. The British began the “Quit India” campaign because they wanted to help India make a gradual and peaceful transition to democratic self-rule.

____ 20. Tension continues today between India and Pakistan over Kashmir.

____ 21. The United States formally recognized the united Vietnam in 1995.

____ 22. The Tet Offensive was a decisive victory for the American cause in Vietnam.

____ 23. U.S. president Richard Nixon ended decades of U.S. hostility toward China by meeting Mao in 1972.

____ 24. The results of the Great Leap Forward increased support for Mao.

____ 25. The Cultural Revolution in China led to a golden age of art, architecture, and literature in the 1960s.

____ 26. A strong Japanese work ethic contributed to Japan’s stunning economic recovery after World War II.

____ 27. Some predicted that the 2000s would see Europe and North America surpassing Asia as the dominant economic region in the world.



Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 28. How did the British respond to the “Quit India” campaign?



a.

They rioted.

b.

They left India immediately.

c.

They imprisoned Gandhi and Indian Congress officials.

d.

They released political prisoners.

____ 29. Which of the following statements accurately describes the Indian economy in the 1990s?



a.

Heavy and light industry greatly expanded during the decade as a result of stronger trade barriers enacted by the government.

b.

Economic reforms led to growth in information technology and the customer-service industries, although millions still live in poverty.

c.

The Indian economy grew at a remarkable rate, virtually eliminating the poverty that had plagued the nation since independence.

d.

Tightening government controls and stronger tariffs led to significant economic gains.

____ 30. East Pakistan’s independence movement was supported by



a.

East Timor.

c.

the Soviet Union.

b.

West Pakistan.

d.

India.

____ 31. Before World War II, the British controlled



a.

Burma and Malaya.

c.

Indonesia.

b.

the Philippines.

d.

Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

____ 32. Before World War II, the French controlled



a.

Burma and Malaya.

c.

Indonesia.

b.

the Philippines.

d.

Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

____ 33. During World War II, European and American control of Southeast Asian colonies was weakened by



a.

German occupation.

c.

Japanese occupation.

b.

massive defense spending.

d.

prolonged interruption in trade.

I am certain we exaggerated the threat. Had we never intervened. . . I doubt that all of Asia would have fallen under Communist control. I doubt that the security of the West would have been materially and adversely affected had we not intervened.”


Robert McNamara, April 16, 1996

____ 34. In the passage by Robert McNamara, he questioned the validity of which of the following as the basis for the war in Vietnam?



a.

the need to spread democracy

c.

the domino theory

b.

attacks in the Gulf of Tonkin

d.

nuclear weapons testing

____ 35. The quote by Robert McNamara illustrates the belief that led to which of the following?



a.

independence for the Philippines

c.

a UN role in Korea

b.

the Vietnam War

d.

French withdrawal from Indochina

____ 36. Support for the Communists was widespread in China because they promised to



a.

increase the nation’s industrial and agricultural output.

b.

hold democratic elections.

c.

end political persecution of dissidents.

d.

redistribute land to peasants.

____ 37. The People’s Republic of China was formed in



a.

1919.

c.

1959.

b.

1949.

d.

1979.

____ 38. China’s Great Leap Forward resulted in



a.

better relations with the Soviet Union.

b.

the creation of an extensive transportation network in the country.

c.

an increase in both imports and exports as the economy improved.

d.

sharp drops in agricultural production and widespread famine.

____ 39. The Cultural Revolution in China led to



a.

a flowering of art, architecture and literature.

b.

the deaths of hundreds and thousands of people.

c.

a Communist revolution.

d.

the overthrow of Mao Zedong.

____ 40. Which U.S. president ended decades of hostility toward China?



a.

John F. Kennedy

c.

Jimmy Carter

b.

Richard Nixon

d.

Ronald Reagan

____ 41. Which of the following most helped Japan’s economic recovery after World War II?



a.

the outbreak of the Korean War

c.

the growth of a service economy

b.

raising the minimum wage

d.

the criminalization of labor unions

____ 42. Industrial growth in Japan was fueled by



a.

the military dictatorship’s control over the economy.

b.

the strong Japanese work ethic and good labor relations.

c.

strong protective tariffs.

d.

Soviet and Chinese aid.

____ 43. Which of the following Pacific Rim countries had a deteriorating economy in the 1990s and early 2000s?



a.

North Korea

c.

Japan

b.

South Korea

d.

the Philippines


____ 44. Study the graph titled “Economic Growth in Asia, 1986–2004.” The economic trends shown on the graph have led those countries to



a.

eliminate poverty.

b.

build strong banking systems.

c.

become the strongest economies in the world.

d.

become known as the Asian Tigers.

____ 45. Study the graph titled “Economic Growth in Asia, 1986–2004.” The economies of the countries on the graph suffered in the late 1990s when



a.

the U.S. stock market crashed.

b.

banks began to fail and a financial panic spread through the region.

c.

the Soviet Union collapsed.

d.

workers held a general strike in several Asian countries.

____ 46. Study the graph titled “Economic Growth in Asia, 1986–2004.” According to this graph, the economies of South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore



a.

remained flat.

c.

consistently declined.

b.

never recovered from the lows.

d.

all showed growth.

____ 47. When some observers predict that the 2000s will be an “Asian century” they mean that



a.

strong democracies will emerge throughout the region.

b.

the population in Asia will grow ten-fold.

c.

Asian car manufacturers will put Ford out of business.

d.

Asia will surpass Europe and North America as the dominant economic region in the world.

____ 48. In 1947, India became the world’s largest



a.

democracy.

c.

authoritarian state.

b.

monarchy.

d.

economy.

____ 49. What helped to rebuild Japan’s economy after World War II?



a.

Emperor Hirohito’s strong leadership

b.

massive defense spending

c.

U.S. economic aid and Japan’s location as a supply source during the Korean War

d.

abolishing light industries

____ 50. General Suharto’s corrupt, authoritarian reign lasted until 1998 in



a.

Indonesia.

c.

Cambodia.

b.

East Timor.

d.

Myanmar.

____ 51. The 1954 peace talks that resulted in dividing Vietnam into northern and southern halves reflected



a.

lessons learned from World War II.

b.

Cold War tensions.

c.

hopes for a permanent division of Vietnam.

d.

the impact of events in the Gulf of Tonkin.

____ 52. Aung San Suu Kyi won the Nobel Peace Prize for working to promote democracy in



a.

Nepal.

c.

India.

b.

Pakistan.

d.

Myanmar.


Completion

Complete each statement.

53. When Great Britain formally ended colonial rule of India in August 1947, _________________________ became India’s first prime minister.

54. British leaders partitioned India into two nations, India and ____________________, before ending colonial rule.

55. ____________________ was elected prime minister of India in 1964, showing that the role of women in Indian society had improved in the years after independence.

56. General _________________________ took power in Pakistan in 1999 when he overthrew the elected government in a military coup.

57. The ____________________ Resolution gave President Johnson the power to expand U.S. military involvement in Vietnam without a formal declaration of war.

58. ____________________ led an independence movement in the Dutch East Indies and became Indonesia’s first president after independence was achieved in 1949.

59. The Khmer Rouge, led by ____________________, gained control of Cambodia and established a Communist government there in 1975.

60. In 1991, _________________________ won the Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts to promote democracy in Myanmar.

61. In the 1960s, China launched a movement called the _________________________ that sought to rid China of its old ways and to create a society in which peasants and physical labor were the ideal.

62. As China’s leader, ____________________ helped put in place far-reaching market reforms in the Chinese economy called the Four Modernizations.

63. Philippine voters elected ____________________ in 1986 to replace Ferdinand Marcos.

64. After the Korean War, Communist dictator ____________________ formed a government in North Korea and developed a command economy.

65. ____________________ became the home of Guomindang nationalists when they were driven out of mainland China by the Communists in 1949.

66. By the late 1950s, a group committed to fighting the corrupt government in South Vietnam, called the____________________, was formed.

67. _________________________ led the Muslim League, which favored a partition of India.

68. When East Pakistan became independent, it took the name ____________________.

69. ____________________ was the Communist leader of the Vietminh.

70. The ____________________ were militant students who traveled through China’s cities and villages, looking for those they believed to be corrupt.

71. In Cambodia, the ____________________ established a Communist government and renamed the country Democratic Kampuchea.

72. Mao Zedong’s plan to increase China’s industrial and agricultural output was called the _________________________.

73. The rule of the Philippines' dictatorial president _________________________ came to an end in 1986.

74. In 1989, the ______________________________, an event in which many supporters of democracy were killed, showed that true freedom had not arrived in China.

75. After Mao Zedong's death, ____________________ eventually became China's leader and began economic reforms.



Matching

Select the letter of the term, person, or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used.

a.

Singapore

i.

Ngo Dinh Diem

b.

Ho Chi Minh

j.

General Suharto

c.

partition

k.

Great Leap Forward

d.

Vietcong

l.

Mother Theresa

e.

Douglas MacArthur

m.

Indonesia

f.

Gang of Four

n.

Ferdinand Marcos

g.

Quit India campaign

o.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

h.

Mao Zedong

____ 76. Corrupt leader of South Vietnam

____ 77. Authoritarian dictator of the Philippines

____ 78. Authoritarian leader of Indonesia who stepped down in 1998

____ 79. Took control of Allied efforts to rebuild Japan after World War II

____ 80. Led the Muslim League, which favored partition of India

____ 81. Hit by a devastating tsunami in 2004 that killed over 225,000 people

____ 82. Resulted in the creation of separate Muslim and Hindu countries out of colonial India

____ 83. Communist leader of the Vietminh

____ 84. Communist leader of China

____ 85. Begun in response to India’s forced participation in World War II

____ 86. One of the Asian Tigers

____ 87. Plan to increase China’s industrial and agricultural output

Short Answer

88. Why did East Pakistan seek independence?

89. How has Kashmir caused conflict between India and Pakistan?

90. Describe changes that took place in India in the first years after independence.

91. Why was Indira Gandhi assassinated?

92. Describe conditions in Bangladesh after the civil war.

93. What agreement was reached between France, Vietnam, the United States, and the Soviet Union regarding Vietnam’s future in 1954?

94. What was the Tet Offensive? What was its significance?

95. How did the Khmer Rouge attempt to rebuild Cambodian society?

96. What were the elements of the economic reform plan in China called the Four Modernizations?

97. What was the Tiananmen Square Massacre, and what did it demonstrate?

98. What problems does China’s enormous population cause, and how has the government responded?

99. Describe human rights abuses in China today.

100. How did Japan’s new constitution, which went into effect in 1947, differ from the previous constitution?

101. How did Japanese culture and family life change in the postwar years?

102. What challenges remain in the Philippines?

103. Describe politics in South Korea in the years following the Korean War.

104. What problems did Vietnam face after the Vietnam War ended?

105. Explain how religious tensions in India led to partition.

106. What factors complicated the relationship between India and Pakistan after partition?

107. What was the domino theory? How did it lead to the Vietnam War?

108. Summarize Mao Zedong’s attempts to transform the Chinese economy in the 1950s.

109. What were the three basic steps of the rebuilding process in postwar Japan?

110. Study the graph titled “Economic Growth in Asia, 1986–2004.” Use information from the graph and your knowledge of the chapter to describe how the Asian Tigers' economies grew.



chapter30

Answer Section

TRUE/FALSE

1. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.3

2. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.1

3. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.2

4. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.2

5. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.3

6. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

7. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

8. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

9. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.3

10. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

11. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

12. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

13. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.3

14. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.1

15. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.1

16. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.2

17. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.3

18. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

19. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.1

20. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.1

21. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

22. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

23. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

24. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

25. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

26. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.1

27. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.3



MULTIPLE CHOICE

28. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.1

29. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.2

30. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.3

31. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.1

32. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.1

33. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.1

34. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

35. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

36. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.1

37. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.1

38. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

39. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

40. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.3

41. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.1

42. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.1

43. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.2

44. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.3

45. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.3

46. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.3

47. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.3

48. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.2

49. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.1

50. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.3

51. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

52. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.3



COMPLETION

53. ANS: Jawaharlal Nehru

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.1

54. ANS: Pakistan

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.1

55. ANS: Indira Gandhi

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.2

56. ANS: Pervez Musharraf

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.3

57. ANS: Gulf of Tonkin

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

58. ANS: Sukarno

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.3

59. ANS: Pol Pot

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.3

60. ANS: Aung San Suu Kyi

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.3

61. ANS: Cultural Revolution

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

62. ANS: Deng Xiaoping

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.3

63. ANS: Corazon Aquino

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.2

64. ANS: Kim Il Sung

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.2

65. ANS: Taiwan

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.2

66. ANS: Vietcong

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.2

67. ANS: Muhammad Ali Jinnah

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.1

68. ANS: Bangladesh

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.3

69. ANS: Ho Chi Minh

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.1

70. ANS: Red Guards

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

71. ANS: Khmer Rouge

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.2.3

72. ANS: Great Leap Forward

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.2

73. ANS: Ferdinand Marcos

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.4.2

74. ANS: Tiananmen Square Massacre

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.3

75. ANS: Deng Xiaoping

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.3.3

MATCHING

76. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.2.2

77. ANS: N PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.4.2

78. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.2.3

79. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.4.1

80. ANS: O PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.1.1

81. ANS: M PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.2.3

82. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.1.1

83. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.2.1

84. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.3.1

85. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.1.1

86. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.4.3

87. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 30.3.2

SHORT ANSWER

88. ANS:

When Pakistan was created in 1947 it had two parts, West Pakistan and East Pakistan, separated by hundreds of miles. The two parts also were ethnically different. Even though the east had a higher population, the west controlled the country’s government. Policies and spending favored the west while the east remained desperately poor. East Pakistan decided to seek independence in 1971 to address these problems.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.1.3

89. ANS:

At the time of partition, the border issue of Kashmir was not settled. The Hindu ruler of Kashmir wanted to join India, although much of Kashmir’s largely Muslim population wanted to join Pakistan. The two nations began to fight over control of the region soon after partition. In 1949, a cease-fire divided Kashmir into two parts, but the peace was uneasy.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.1.1

90. ANS:

Prime Minister Nehru emphasized the need for unity and economic and social reforms, as well as respect for democratic ideals. He worked to increase the legal rights of women, to improve the lives of the poor, and to prevent discrimination based on caste. Industry and agriculture improved.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.1.2

91. ANS:

She was assassinated after she ordered a violent attack on Sikh militants occupying a Sikh temple. The attack outraged many Sikhs, even those who had not supported the militants. In October 1984, Gandhi’s Sikh bodyguards assassinated her.

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 30.1.2

92. ANS:

The nation is densely populated and extremely poor. Devastating storms and floods are frequent, killing many people and leading to widespread famine. The government was unstable after the civil war, although in recent years the nation has attempted to build a stable democracy.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.1.3

93. ANS:

Representatives agreed that Vietnam would be divided temporarily into northern and southern halves. The Communists would control the north. According to the agreement, in 1956, Vietnamese voters would choose a government for a reunited Vietnam.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.2.2

94. ANS:

The Tet Offensive was a daring strike against cities and other targets across South Vietnam by the North Vietnamese army and the Vietcong. It was held on the Vietnamese New Year, called Tet, in 1968. Although it was a military setback for the Vietcong, it delivered a heavy political blow to the U.S. and South Vietnamese effort. U.S. leaders had claimed victory was close at hand, but the Tet Offensive showed that was not the case, weakening American public support for the war.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.2.2

95. ANS:

The Khmer Rouge attempted to create a country in which nearly everyone would work as a simple peasant. In order to achieve this goal, they tried to destroy all influences of urban life and modern civilization using brutal methods, including killing all educated Cambodians. Others were worked or starved to death. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.2.3

96. ANS:

The Four Modernizations emphasized improvement in the four main elements of China’s economy: agriculture, industry, science and technology, and national defense. The plan gave businesses new freedom to make economic decisions.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.3.3

97. ANS:

Inspired by the movement toward economic freedom, many Chinese demanded more political freedom. In the spring of 1989, more than a million pro-democracy protestors occupied Beijing’s Tiananmen Square. After repeatedly asking the protestors to leave the square, the government finally responded with force, killing many protestors in what has come to be known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre. The event demonstrated that true freedom had not yet arrived in China.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.3.3

98. ANS:

China’s population places great demands on the nation’s resources and has created enormous environmental problems. The country has had to import enormous quantities of coal, iron ore, oil, and natural gas. Rapid industrial expansion has led to widespread air and water pollution. The government has tried to keep population growth under control by encouraging families to have only one child.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.3.3

99. ANS:

The Chinese government limits free speech and religious freedoms and exercises strict control over the media. Political protestors can be jailed, and the nation’s courts are accused of failing to provide fair trials.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.3.3

100. ANS:

The new constitution gave far more power to the Japanese people, giving all adults the right to vote for Japan’s parliament. It also placed great emphasis on human rights and greatly expanded Japanese citizens’ civil rights, including the rights of freedom of speech, assembly, and religion. The new constitution gave the right to organize political parties.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.4.1

101. ANS:

Many Japanese young people adopted American customs, music, movies, and food. Gender roles changed as more women began attending high school and college and won new social and legal freedoms. The importance of the extended family declined.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.4.1

102. ANS:

Although the economy began to improve in the 1990s, many Filipinos still live in poverty. Groups of separatist Communist and Muslim rebels have used guerrilla warfare and terrorist attacks in their fights to break away and establish independent states.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.4.2

103. ANS:

South Koreans had little freedom or political stability, and repeated uprisings and military coups replaced one authoritarian government with another. Reform finally began in the late 1980s with the adoption of a more democratic constitution.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.4.2

104. ANS:

Although the country was united, millions of Vietnamese had died or been made homeless during the war. The Vietnamese economy was severely crippled. After Vietnam abandoned its Soviet-style planned economy, there has been steady economic growth. In 1995 the United States formally recognized the united Vietnam and the two nations agreed to improve their trade relationship.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.2.2

105. ANS:

India was home to 255 million Hindus and 92 million Muslims. As hope for Indian independence grew, so did religious tensions. Some Muslims feared that Hindus would dominate an independent, democratic India. Arguing that Indian Muslims should have a separate nation in order to protect their rights, the Muslim League in 1940 called for partition. Violence between Hindus and Muslims increased. Finally, British leaders decided that partition was the best way to ensure a safe and stable region.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.1.1

106. ANS:

A wave of violence followed partition and independence, as millions of people on each side of the border tried to flee. Muslims in India headed for Pakistan, and Hindus in Pakistan headed for India. Nearly a million people died. Since independence, border disputes and other problems have caused continuing hostility. A key issue has been the conflicting claims of India and Pakistan regarding the region of Kashmir. The role of India in the independence of East Pakistan and the tensions caused by testing nuclear weapons in India and Pakistan have also complicated relations between the two countries.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.1.1

107. ANS:

The domino theory was the belief that if all of Vietnam fell to communism, other Southeast Asian countries would quickly follow. With North Vietnam already under Communist rule, the United States began sending military assistance to the non-Communist government in South Vietnam, which faced a guerrilla war led by Vietcong guerrillas. The United States sent thousands of military advisors to help South Vietnamese forces fight the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese. The American presence in Vietnam expanded greatly after the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 1962.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.2.2

108. ANS:

Mao Zedong seized the property of rural landowners and redistributed it among the peasants, then adopted Soviet-style five-year plans for industrial development. The first five-year plan doubled China’s small industrial output and helped to raise living standards. But in 1958, Mao broke with Soviet-style policies and announced a program called the Great Leap Forward. He created thousands of communes with the goal of increasing industrial and agricultural output. The program had disastrous results. Droughts, floods, and farmers’ neglect led to sharp drops in agricultural production. Millions died in the famine that followed.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.3.2

109. ANS:

The three steps for rebuilding Japan were: demilitarizing Japan, building a democratic government, and establishing an economy that could support a peaceful and democratic Japan.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.4.1

110. ANS:



The Asian Tigers achieved impressive economic growth by following a pattern similar to the one used by postwar Japan. They provided education and training to produce a skilled workforce, they received large amounts of economic aid from the United States, and they focused on growth through exports of consumer goods. Despite a severe economic crisis in Asia in 1997, the Asian Tigers worked together to stabilize their economies and keep growing.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 30.4.3


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