Chapter28 True/False



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chapter28

True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ 1. During World War II, Russia, Germany, and Italy were known as the Axis Powers.

____ 2. During World War II, Britain and France became known as the Allies.

____ 3. Japan invaded French Indochina to gain oil, rubber, and other natural resources.

____ 4. Stalin signed the nonaggression pact with Germany because he feared Britain and France would not help protect his country from Germany’s growing armies.

____ 5. General Douglas MacArthur never lost a battle during World War II.

____ 6. World War II was the first war in which American women were allowed to take part in combat.

____ 7. The Allies were able to control the waters of the Atlantic from the first days of the war, ensuring that the vital supply line to Great Britain and the Soviet Union was kept open.

____ 8. Americans were able to win the Battle of Midway in large part because they had broken the secret Japanese code used to transmit messages and as a result knew the date and location of the planned Japanese attack.

____ 9. Many Germans accepted Hitler’s anti-Semitism and his claims that Germans were a “master race” because they felt humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles and wanted a convenient scapegoat for Germany’s problems.

____ 10. Had the United States and other nations eased immigration regulations in the 1930s, more European Jews could have been saved from the Holocaust.

____ 11. Once reports of the widespread killing of Jews in Europe were confirmed, the Allies did as much as they could to rescue Jews.

____ 12. Before World War II, Hitler’s Nazi government passed restrictive laws severely limiting the rights of Jews in Germany.

____ 13. After taking North Africa, the Allies turned their attention to liberating France.

____ 14. The Battle of Guadalcanal was a series of brutal battles over a six-month period that eventually led to an American victory over Japanese forces.

____ 15. The Battle of the Bulge was significant because it marked the end of major German resistance.

____ 16. The dropping of an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima ended the war in the Pacific.

____ 17. Germans made solid advances in the Allied battle lines at the Battle of the Bulge in Belgium.

____ 18. The militarization of the Rhineland violated the Treaty of Versailles.

____ 19. The annexation of Austria by Germany began World War II.

____ 20. The United States provided military aid to Great Britain before entering the war.

____ 21. Many German Jews could not leave Nazi Germany because emigration was outlawed.

____ 22. Only Jews were targeted by the Nazi campaign to kill “inferior” people.

____ 23. Allied leaders had difficulty reaching agreement at the Potsdam Conference.



Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 24. What led Hitler to believe that European powers would not interfere in his plans for Anschluss?



a.

the lack of direct action to stop his militarization of the Rhineland

b.

England and France’s lack of support for the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War

c.

the Allies’ refusal to help Poland

d.

the nonaggression pact he negotiated with them

____ 25. Which of the following began World War II?



a.

the defeat of Franco’s Nationalists

c.

Hitler’s attack on Czechoslovakia

b.

the Anschluss

d.

Hitler’s attack on Poland

____ 26. What recent invention allowed the British to more effectively defend against German air attacks?



a.

trench warfare

c.

the submarine

b.

radar

d.

the sitzkrieg

We shall fight on the beaches. We shall fight on the landing grounds. We shall fight in the fields, and in the street, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender!”


Winston Churchill, June 4, 1940

____ 27. Read the quote from Winston Churchill. Winston Churchill’s words inspired people during the



a.

attack on Pearl Harbor.

c.

Battle of Britain.

b.

Battle of Guadalcanal.

d.

Battle of the Atlantic.

____ 28. Why was the Soviet Union unprepared for Hitler’s attack in June 1941?



a.

because German troops were also pushing towards Paris

b.

because the Soviets had previously signed a nonaggression pact with Germany

c.

because the Soviets were a member of the Axis alliance

d.

because Hitler had already surrendered

____ 29. What event led to a decisive shift away from isolationism in the United States?



a.

the Battle of Britain

b.

the discovery of Auschwitz

c.

the sinking of American ships by German submarines

d.

the attack on Pearl Harbor

____ 30. Before entering World War II, the United States



a.

remained strictly neutral.

b.

provided monetary aid to the Axis Powers.

c.

provided military aid to Great Britain.

d.

attacked German submarines.

____ 31. Control of North Africa was vital for the Allies because



a.

large numbers of terrorist attacks against Allied ships were being launched from the area.

b.

they needed to control the Panama Canal in order to obtain oil from the Middle East.

c.

North African countries provided the best area from which to launch air attacks against Italy.

d.

they needed to control the Suez Canal in order to obtain oil from the Middle East.

____ 32. The Siege of Leningrad resulted in



a.

a Germany victory.

b.

the starvation of one million German troops.

c.

a British victory.

d.

the starvation of one million Russian civilians.


____ 33. The graph titled “Europe’s Jewish Population” refers to which of the following?



a.

After the war the Jewish population of Europe increased by 3.5 million.

b.

Before the war, fewer Jews lived in Europe than after the war.

c.

The Jewish population of Europe decreased by 6 million.

d.

The Jewish population of the United States decreased.

____ 34. Use the graph titled “Europe’s Jewish Population” to complete the statement: This graph illustrates the



a.

migration of European Jews to Israel after World War II.

b.

deportation of thousands of German Jews by Nazi Germany.

c.

deaths of 6 million Jews worldwide during World War II.

d.

decrease in Europe’s Jewish population between 1933 and the conclusion of the war.

____ 35. What was the significance of the Battle of Coral Sea?



a.

It was the first time the Allies had stopped the relentless Japanese advance.

b.

It repelled the Axis Powers from Northern Africa.

c.

The Americans sunk four Japanese carriers and lost only one of their own.

d.

It resulted in Allied control of the entire Atlantic.

____ 36. The Nazi campaign to imprison inferior people included which of the following targets?



a.

Jews and Aryans

b.

only Jews

c.

Jews, homosexuals, disabled people, Poles, Slavs, and Gypsies

d.

all residents of Allied countries

____ 37. The Soviets most likely responded to the Allied invasion of western North Africa with



a.

disappointment that the Allies chose to delay invading Europe.

b.

relief that the invasion would draw troops away from Soviet territory.

c.

distrust because Soviet troops were being used in a lost cause.

d.

promises to send military support, including soldiers.

____ 38. Hitler’s declaration that “Surrender is forbidden” to his commanders at the Battle of Stalingrad led to



a.

a two-year stalemate.

b.

a decisive German victory over the Soviets.

c.

the starvation of over a million civilians.

d.

the capture of 90,000 Axis survivors and a crushing defeat for Hitler.

____ 39. Why did American and British forces plan a massive invasion of Western Europe?



a.

to maintain control of Atlantic shipping routes

b.

to open a second front and put the Axis forces on the defensive

c.

to avenge Pearl Harbor

d.

to help the Soviets, who were battling German forces in Stalingrad and Leningrad

____ 40. The liberation of Paris by the Allies led Hitler to



a.

kill himself.

c.

invade the Soviet Union.

b.

surrender.

d.

order a counterattack in Belgium.

____ 41. What was the goal of the Yalta Conference?



a.

to agree on a schedule for the invasion of France

b.

to reach an agreement on what to do with postwar Europe

c.

to compensate victims of the Holocaust

d.

to divide Europe into communist and capitalist sections

____ 42. The difficulties Allied leaders had in reaching agreement at the Potsdam Conference were due to



a.

growing ill-will between the Soviet Union and other Allies.

b.

uncertainties about when the war would end in Europe.

c.

the fight of many colonized people for independence.

d.

the refusal of the Soviet Union to join the United Nations.

____ 43. The D-Day invasion of Normandy was launched from



a.

Belgium.

c.

Berlin.

b.

the United Kingdom.

d.

the Soviet Union.

____ 44. Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill issued the Atlantic Charter, a document



a.

that negotiated shipping lanes in the Atlantic.

b.

which established the United Nations.

c.

which asserted their right to territorial gains.

d.

which affirmed that nations should choose their governments.

____ 45. For the Soviet Union, what was the turning point in the war in Europe?



a.

the end of the Siege of Leningrad

c.

the Battle of Iwo Jima

b.

their victory at Stalingrad

d.

the Battle of Midway

____ 46. Which of the following military alliances became known as the Axis Powers?



a.

England and France

b.

Germany, Italy, and Japan

c.

Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Rhineland

d.

Germany and the Soviet Union

____ 47. When Hitler attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941, he



a.

was breaking the Soviet-German nonaggression pact.

b.

threatened the alliance between the Axis Powers.

c.

felt invincible because of his victory in Great Britain.

d.

hoped to draw the United States into war.

____ 48. Which group was treated most harshly by the U.S. government during World War II?



a.

German Americans

c.

Italian Americans

b.

African Americans

d.

Japanese Americans

____ 49. Before World War II, Hitler’s Nazi government



a.

sent Einsatzgruppen into the Soviet Union.

b.

outlawed emigration.

c.

passed restrictive laws severely limiting the rights of Jews.

d.

did not limit the rights of any German citizens.

____ 50. Hitler’s Final Solution included



a.

opening a second front in Western Europe.

b.

less restrictive laws benefiting Germany’s Jewish population.

c.

concentration camps, death camps, and Einsatzgruppen.

d.

deportation of European Jews.

____ 51. How did Hitler respond to the successful invasion of France by the Allies?



a.

He ordered a counterattack in Belgium.

b.

He invaded the Soviet Union.

c.

He reconquered the beaches of Normandy.

d.

He personally surrendered to Soviet troops in Berlin.

____ 52. Roosevelt and Churchill’s joint declaration proclaiming what they viewed as the purpose of going to war is called the



a.

Atlantic Charter.

c.

Declaration of the Three Powers.

b.

Treaty of Versailles.

d.

Yalta Charter.

Here was the greatest misery that I have seen in my whole life. An endless wailing of wounded and dying men. . . most of them had received nothing to eat for days.”

Alois Dorner, German Soldier, January 1943

____ 53. Read the quote by Alois Dorner. In the quote, this German soldier was referring to



a.

the Battle of Stalingrad.

c.

the Battle of Midway.

b.

the Bataan Death March.

d.

the Battle of Britain.


Completion

Complete each statement.

54. British politician _________________________ spoke out against Britain’s policy of appeasement.

55. The ____________________ was a German war tactic emphasizing speed and close coordination between planes in the air and fast-moving forces on the ground.

56. ____________________ led the Japanese government at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor.

57. The belief that a country should stay out of the affairs of other nations is called ____________________.

58. The Battle of ____________________ severely weakened the Axis Powers in North Africa.

59. Although their attack resulted in a crushing defeat, Germans fought the _________________________ in order to gain control of crucial shipping ports and factories that produced Soviet military equipment.

60. The ____________________ were Japanese pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and deliberately crashed into Allied ships, sacrificing their own lives in the process.

61. Confined areas within a city where Jews were forced to live were called ____________________.

62. Hitler’s plan to deliberately execute massive numbers of Jews across Europe was called the ____________________.

63. The United States established the _________________________ in 1944, which helped rescue as many as 200,000 Jews in Europe.

64. On June 6, 1944, known as ____________________, Allied forces invaded France.

65. The Japanese emperor surrendered on August 15, 1945, a day that became known as ____________________.

66. The ____________________ was formed after World War II to encourage international cooperation and prevent future wars.

67. ____________________ became president after the death of Franklin Roosevelt in May 1945.

Matching

Select the letter of the term, person, or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used.

a.

Atlantic Charter

h.

the Holocaust

b.

Hirohito

i.

Bataan Death March

c.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

j.

annexation

d.

concentration camps

k.

Battle of Coral Sea

e.

Czechoslovakia

l.

Battle of Okinawa

f.

Einsatzgruppen

m.

Anti-Comintern Pact

g.

Erwin Rommel

____ 68. Caused the death of 600 Americans and as many as 10,000 Filipino prisoners

____ 69. Labor camps holding people designated as enemies of Germany

____ 70. Outlined the purpose of fighting World War II

____ 71. Agreement between Germany and Japan

____ 72. The genocidal campaign against Jews

____ 73. Led the Axis forces in North Africa

____ 74. Left to defend itself alone due to the policy of appeasement

____ 75. Fought to establish an American base close to the major islands of Japan

____ 76. Hitler demanded Austrian officials accept this

____ 77. Mobile killing units that executed Jews on a massive scale

Select the letter of the term, person, or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used.

a.

Battle of Midway

h.

kamikaze

b.

isolationism

i.

blitzkrieg

c.

United Nations

j.

V-E Day

d.

Battle of El Alamein

k.

Siege of Leningrad

e.

Auschwitz

l.

Neville Chamberlain

f.

V-J Day

m.

Final Solution

g.

Winston Churchill

____ 78. A huge death camp

____ 79. Spoke out against Britain’s policy of appeasement

____ 80. Resulted in the deaths of as many as one million Russian civilians

____ 81. Celebrated Germany’s surrender

____ 82. War tactic combining air and ground attacks and emphasizing speed

____ 83. Formed to encourage international cooperation and prevent war

____ 84. Desire to stay out of the affairs of other nations

____ 85. The deliberate, mass execution of Jews by the Nazis

____ 86. Severely weakened the Axis Powers in North Africa

____ 87. Diminished the Japanese advantage on the seas

Short Answer

88. What two actions that Hitler took convinced him that his European rivals would not stop his aggression against Czechoslovakia?

89. What was the result of the Battle of Midway? Why was it significant?

90. Describe the response of the U.S. government to evidence of the widespread killing of Jews in Europe.

91. What was D-Day, and how did it help defeat Germany in Europe?

92. Explain the rationale behind the U.S. government’s decision to use the atomic bomb.



93. What can you conclude from the information in the graph titled “Europe’s Jewish Population”?

94. World War II ended in 1945. According to the graph titled “Europe’s Jewish Population,” what was the difference in the Jewish population between 1933 and the end of the war? What factors account for that difference?

95. How did World War I contribute to Hitler’s rise to power in Germany?

96. How did the European experience in World War I contribute to Hitler’s ability to aggressively expand in Europe prior to World War II?

97. Imagine the Allies had maintained a strong defense in northern France at the dense Ardennes Forest. Do you think they may have prevented the fall of France to Hitler’s forces? Why or why not?

98. Why do you think Japan chose to launch its surprise attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor? Did they achieve their goals? Why or why not?

99. Describe life in internment camps for Japanese Americans.

100. Why do you think the U.S. government forced Japanese Americans on the West Coast to leave their homes and businesses and go to internment camps?

101. How did Americans at home contribute to the war effort?

102. What was island hopping and why was it advantageous?

103. Imagine you were a Soviet solider who was among those who discovered the camp at Auschwitz in 1945. What would you have seen? How would you have reacted?

104. After deporting Jews throughout the 1930s, Germany outlawed Jewish emigration in 1941. Why do you think that was so?

105. What was the difference between concentration camps and death camps?

106. Had you been alive during World War II, how would you have felt on V-E Day?

107. Why did American leaders decide to use the atomic bomb on Japan?

108. Describe the effects of the war in Eastern Europe.

109. What nations formed the United Nations Security Council?

110. Summarize the argument of those who opposed dropping the atomic bomb on Japan.

chapter28

Answer Section

TRUE/FALSE

1. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.2

2. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.3

3. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.4

4. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.2

5. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.4

6. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.1

7. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.1

8. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.3

9. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.1

10. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.1

11. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.3

12. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.3.1

13. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.2

14. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.4

15. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.1

16. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.2

17. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.1

18. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.1

19. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.1

20. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.1

21. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.1

22. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.2

23. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.3



MULTIPLE CHOICE

24. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.1

25. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.3

26. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.1.3

27. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.3

28. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.1.3

29. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.4

30. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.1

31. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.2

32. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.3

33. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.2

34. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.2

35. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.4

36. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.2

37. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.2

38. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.3

39. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.1

40. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.1

41. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.3

42. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.3

43. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.1

44. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.1

45. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.3

46. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.2

47. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.3

48. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.1

49. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.1

50. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.2

51. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.1

52. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.1

53. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.3

COMPLETION

54. ANS: Winston Churchill

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.1

55. ANS: blitzkrieg

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.1

56. ANS: Hideki Tojo

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.3

57. ANS: isolationism

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.4

58. ANS: El Alamein

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.1.4

59. ANS: Battle of Stalingrad

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.2

60. ANS: kamikaze

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.3

61. ANS: ghettos

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.2.4

62. ANS: Final Solution

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.1

63. ANS: War Refugee Board

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.2

64. ANS: D-Day

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.3.3

65. ANS: V-J Day

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.1

66. ANS: United Nations

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.2

67. ANS: Harry S Truman

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.3

MATCHING

68. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.2.4

69. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.3.2

70. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.2.1

71. ANS: M PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.1.2

72. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.3.2

73. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.2.2

74. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.1.1

75. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.4.2

76. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.1.1

77. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.3.2

78. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.3.2

79. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.1.1

80. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.2.3

81. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.4.1

82. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.1.3

83. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.4.3

84. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.1.4

85. ANS: M PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.3.2

86. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.2.2

87. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 28.2.4

SHORT ANSWER

88. ANS:

First, Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles by militarizing the Rhineland in March 1936. Second, Hitler annexed Austria in March 1938. In neither case did France or Europe take direct action to stop him, convincing him that he could invade Czechoslovakia unopposed. Some students may mention that Hitler reamed Germany in violation of the treaty before taking action outside of Germany.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.1.1

89. ANS:

Japanese and American carriers fought on the high seas in the Battle of Midway in June 1942. Because Americans had broken a secret Japanese code, they knew the details of the planned attack. As a result, they won the battle decisively, destroying four Japanese carriers. The battle changed the balance of power in the Pacific, and the Allies could finally go on the offensive.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.2.4

90. ANS:

When reports were investigated and confirmed, the United States established the War Refugee Board to aid the rescue of Jews in Europe. This helped save about 200,000 Jews. However, the U.S. government did not do all that it could to save Jews in Europe. The government did not establish the board until 1944, and leaders were unwilling to take actions that might interfere with the larger war effort.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.3.3

91. ANS:

D-Day opened a second, Western front in Europe, putting the Axis Powers on the defensive. On June 6, 1944, Allied forces invaded France. Over 150,000 troops landed on the beaches of Normandy and forced through strong German defenses. Nearly a million soldiers had come ashore by July. The Allies reconquered most of France in July, and Germans surrendered Paris by the end of August.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.4.1

92. ANS:

In early 1945, battles for two islands close to Japan, Iwo Jima and Okinawa, convinced American leaders that the Japanese defenders’ willingness to fight to the death would be incredibly costly in American lives. They believed that using the atomic bomb would help bring the war to a quick end and save American lives.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.4.2

93. ANS:

Students will conclude that the Jewish population of Europe greatly decreased in the years between 1933 and the end of the war. Students may conclude this was due to Hitler’s Final Solution.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.3.2

94. ANS:

The difference is six million. The primary factor was Hitler’s Final Solution, although emigration may account for some population loss.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.3.2

95. ANS:

Hitler rose to power in Germany because the Treaty of Versailles, which had ended World War I, seriously damaged the German economy and left the German people feeling humiliated. Hitler came to power with his promise to restore Germany’s greatness, which appealed to the German people.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.1.1

96. ANS:

Although Hitler sought additional territory in Europe for Germany, memories of the devastation of World War I meant that no one was willing to go to war to fight him. Instead, Britain and France practiced a policy of appeasement, or giving in to aggressive demands in order to maintain peace.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.1.1

97. ANS:

Student answers will vary. The Allies would not have prevented the fall of France to Hitler’s forces, although they may have delayed it somewhat. Had the Allies defended the Ardennes Forest, fewer Allied troops would have been available to defend the Netherlands and Belgium. Allied forces in the Netherlands and Belgium were no match for the German attack regardless, so France would have fallen to Germany anyway.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.1.3

98. ANS:

Student answers will vary. The American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was the home of the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Fleet. A successful attack there would disable the U.S. Navy in the Pacific, leaving the country unable to respond to Japanese aggression in the Pacific. In fact, the attack destroyed or severely damaged eight battleships. Unfortunately for the Japanese, the Americans’ three aircraft carriers normally stationed at Pearl Harbor were out to sea during the attack.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.1.4

99. ANS:

Life in interment camps was hard. Many camps were located in desert areas with a harsh climate, and were surrounded by guards and barbed wire fences. Families lived in small facilities, and the quality of education and health care was poor. Japanese Americans were not released from the camps until after the war had ended.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.2.1

100. ANS:

The U.S. government worried that Japanese Americans on the West Coast would help the enemy. However, because German Americans and Italian Americans were not targeted in this way, one motive in the internment of Japanese Americans must be viewed as racial prejudice.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.2.1

101. ANS:

Americans at home made do with less food, fuel, and other items that were needed by the armed forces. Many Americans planted “victory gardens” to grow more food. They also participated in scrap drives to collect materials such as iron and rubber, which could be recycled for military purposes.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.2.1

102. ANS:

Island hopping was a strategy pursued by the Allies in the Pacific that involved skipping over Japanese strongholds and capturing weaker targets. These captured islands would then be used as bases for the next attacks, which moved ever closer to Japan. Meanwhile, the bypassed Japanese strongholds would simply be cut off from outside supplies and would eventually weaken.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.4.2

103. ANS:

Student answers will vary, but should include that the Auschwitz death camp had several thousand starving prisoners, as well as hundreds of thousands of pieces of clothing indicating that many more people had once been held there and had died. Student reactions may include horror, fear, anger, rage, disbelief.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.3.3

104. ANS:

Student answers will vary. During the 1930s, the Germans simply wanted to get Jews out of their nation. However, after Hitler developed a plan he called the Final Solution, which was the deliberate, mass execution of Jews, German leaders no longer wanted Jews to be able to escape -- instead, they wanted to kill them all.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.3.2

105. ANS:

Concentration camps were labor camps meant to hold people Hitler called enemies of the state. At these camps, Jews were forced to work as slave laborers or to submit to medical experiments. Many people died from starvation at these camps, but death was not the primary objective. On the other hand, death camps included specially designed gas chambers in which large numbers of people could be killed quickly as well as furnaces for the disposal of bodies. These camps were designed simply to execute mass numbers of Jews.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.3.2

106. ANS:

Student answers will vary, but should reflect the knowledge that V-E Day was “Victory in Europe Day” and that the war in the Pacific was still raging. Possible response: I would be thrilled that the war in Europe was over, but worried because the war in the Pacific was still raging.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.4.1

107. ANS:

The Battle of Iwo Jima and the Battle of Okinawa showed American leaders that Japanese defenders were willing to fight to the death and made them fear that an invasion of Japan itself would result in as many as 1 million Allied soldiers being killed or wounded. Truman decided to drop the bomb on a Japanese city in the hopes that it would cause Japan to surrender.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.4.2

108. ANS:

In Eastern Europe, the physical devastation was nearly complete. Entire cities, villages, and farms had been destroyed or damaged heavily, and national economies were near collapse. Food, shelter, and medicine were scarce. Millions of people in this area, including survivors of concentration camps and war refugees, were displaced.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.4.3

109. ANS:

The five most powerful Allies--the United States, Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and China--formed the UN Security Council.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 28.4.3

110. ANS:



Those who opposed the dropping the atomic bomb on Japan argued that such a powerful weapon, that could kill tens of thousands of civilians, should only be used as a last resort.

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 28.4.2

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