The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850–1914. Industrial development continued after 1850, bringing new social changes. Political unification came to Germany and Italy, and governments elsewhere developed new functions. The rise of socialism changed political conditions. Urban growth continued, but at a slower pace; in the cities, the conditions of living ameliorated for all classes.
The Second Industrial Revolution.Industrialization accelerated in the decades after 1850. New technologies and new sources of power helped spread industrialization to new industries. The United States took the lead in the reorganization of work to achieve greater efficiency and productivity. Changes in the nature of industrial production slowed the growth of factory labor and spurred the growth of the white-collar class.