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Greek Revolution: rebellion of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; a key step in the disintegration of the Turkish Balkan empire.
Reform Bill of 1832: British legislation that extended the vote to most male members of the middle class.
Chartist movement: attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands incorporated into a series of petitions or charters.
Louis Pasteur: discoverer of germs and of the purifying process named after him.
American Civil War (1861–1865): fought to prevent secession of the southern states; the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.
transformismo: political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals.
social question: issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
socialism: political ideology in 19th-century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of the means of production and an end to the capitalistic exploitation of the working class.
Karl Marx: German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached the inevitability of social revolution and the creation of a proletarian dictatorship.
revisionism: socialist thought that disagreed with Marx’s formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.
feminist movements: sought legal and economic gains for women, among them equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won initial support from middle-class women.
mass leisure culture: an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports.
Charles Darwin: biologist who developed the theory of evolution of the species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
Triple Alliance: alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
Triple Entente: agreement between Britain, Russia, and France in 1907; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
Balkan nationalism: movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans; provoked crises within the European alliance system that ended with the outbreak of World War I.

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