European Settlements in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The three British colonies received many immigrants during the 19th century. They established parliamentary governments and vigorous commercial economies, and they followed European cultural patterns. Canada, after continuing friction between British rulers and French inhabitants, formed a federal system with the majority of the French residing in Quebec. The Australian colonies developed after 1788 amidst an indigenous hunting-and-gathering population. Agricultural development and the discovery of gold spurred population growth and the economy. A federal system of government emerged by 1900. In New Zealand, missionaries and settlers moved into Maori lands. The Maori were defeated by the 1860s. General good relations followed, and New Zealand developed a strong agricultural economy and a parliamentary system. The three territories remained part of the British Empire and were dependent on its economy. Basic European cultural forms prevailed.