Chapter Summary Western society was dominated by two themes: political upheaval, and the spread of Western institutions and values to settler societies. By 1914, monarchies had been overthrown, and parliamentary democracy expanded. More individuals voted. European settler societies became important international players in an altered world balance of power. Western society experienced dramatic cultural changes. The transformation can be subdivided: from the late 18th century, a growing crisis caused a host of changes; experimentation with change occurred between 1775 and 1850; and from 1850 to 1914 a more mature stage was reached.