LECTURE SUGGESTIONS 1. Discuss the innovations and technological advances that made possible the transition from sedentary to agricultural societies. Begin with conditions at places like Jerico and Çatal Huyuk and then move on to the larger populations typical of civilization. Factors to discuss are the spread of sedentary agriculture through the Middle East, the growth of the concept of private property, the need for new laws and enforcement, the development of more complex government, the building of irrigation systems, the status of women, and the invention of new tools.
2. Compare and contrast the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. The following factors can be compared to illuminate the differences between the two civilizations: social stratification (the roles of land-holding nobles, priests, agricultural workers, slaves), emphasis on astronomy and related sciences, conservatism to change, the degree of political centralization, monumental architecture, literary traditions, technological development, status of women.