Chapter Outline Summary I. The Roaring Twenties



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CHAPTER 29


The World between the Wars: Revolutions, Depression, and Authoritarian Response

Chapter Outline Summary

I. The Roaring Twenties

A. Bouncing Back?


Enormous challenges

Optimism, creativity

Cubism

Women


lost place in workforce

gained voting rights

B. Other Industrial Centers
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
independence

British Commonwealth of Nations

United States

economic boom

isolationism

“Red Scare”

Japan

strong economy



C. New Authoritarianism: The Rise of Fascism

Rise, late 1800s

Benito Mussolini

government, 1922

suspended elections, 1926

D. The New Nations of East Central Europe


Authoritarian governments dominated

E. A Balance Sheet


Representative governments

e.g. Germany, Canada, Japan

Social change, economic prosperity

Democracy challenged

Italy, central Europe

American, Japanese powerful



II. Revolution: The First Waves

A. Mexico’s Upheaval


Porfirio Díaz
ruler since 1876

Economy


foreign control

Francisco Madero

1910, arrested

Díaz won election

Rebellion

Madero, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata

Díaz removed

1913, Madero assassinated

Victoriano Huerta

returned to Díaz’ style of rule

forced from power, 1914

General Alvaro Obregón

Civil war over by 1920

Obregón first elected president

1917, new constitution

Lázaro Cárdenas (1934–1940)


land redistributed

ejidos

education expanded

B. Culture and Politics in Postrevolutionary Mexico

Indian culture influential

Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco

Cristeros

conservative peasant movement

PRI (Party of the Institutionalized Revolution)

origins in 1920s

C. Revolution in Russia: Liberalism to Communism


Revolution, 1917

Alexander Kerensky

provisional government

November, 1917

Bolsheviks (Communist Party)

Lenin


closed parliament

Congress of Soviets

1918–1921

reaction against communism

D. Stabilization of Russia’s Communist Regime
Leon Trotsky

Red Army


Lenin’s New Economic Policy, 1921

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1923

E. Soviet Experimentation

Gains for workers, women

Lenin

death, 1924



succeeded by Stalin
F. Toward Revolution in China
Last Qing emperor abdicated, 1912

Yuan Shikai

headed coalition

Japan invaded

G. China’s May Fourth Movement and the Rise of the Marxist Alternative
Sun Yatsen
Revolutionary Alliance
elected president, 1911

parliament

resigned, 1912

Yuan became president

created new regime

Japan


Twenty-one demands to Yuan

Yuan refused

control confirmed by Versailles

May 4, 1919

mass demonstrations

call for Western political reform

Li Dazhou

Marxism adopted to Chinese situation

Mao Zedong influenced by Dazhou

Communist Party of China, 1921

H. The Seizure of Power by China’s Guomindang
Guomindang (Nationalist Party of China)
Sun Yatsen
allied with Communists

supported by Soviet Union

Whampoa Military Academy, 1924

Chiang Kai-shek, first leader

I. Mao and the Peasant Option
Chiang Kai-shek
succeeded as head of Guomindang, 1925

began civil war, to 1949

Mao Zedong
Long March to Shanxi, 1934

III. The Global Great Depression

A. Causation

Recession, 1920–1921

B. The Debacle

October, 1929

New York Stock Market crash

Depression deepens, 1929–1933

Soviet Union


immune

West


welfare programs

C. Responses to the Depression in Western Europe

Governments had little impact

radicalism attractive

Popular Front, 1936

Liberals, Socialists, Communists

D. The New Deal

Franklin Roosevelt


III. The Authoritarian Response

A. The Rise of Nazism

Fascism, 1920s

Adolf Hitler

National Socialist party

1932 elections

anti-Semitism

1933, took power

totalitarian

Rhineland

occupied, 1936

no response

Anschlutz, 1938

Sudetan Land, 1938-1939

Invasion of Poland, 1939

B. The Spread of Fascism and the Spanish Civil War

Mussolini

Ethiopia, 1935

Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939

Germany, Italy support right

Russia, Western volunteers support left

Japan invaded China, 1937

Axis, 1940

Germany, Italy, Japan

C. Economic and Political Changes in Latin America

Economic expansion

Reaction to liberalism

D. The Great Crash and Latin American Responses

Conservatives

corporatism

Fascism

Lázaro Cárdenas (1934–1940)

reform

Cuba


revolution, 1933

E. The Vargas Regime in Brazil

1929 Election

civil war

Gétulio Vargas, president

Vargas


reform

new constitution, 1937

influenced by Mussolini

suicide, 1954

F. Argentina: Populism, Perón, and the Military

Economic collapse, 1929

Nationalists

took control, 1943

Juan d. Perón

wife, Eva Duarte

coalition government

driven from power, 1955

maintains influence

Death of Perón, 1974

return of military rule

G. The Militarization of Japan

Nationalists

Revolts, 1932, 1936

military gained power

Tojo Hideki

influence over prime ministers

War with China, 1937

military ascendant

by 1938


control of Korea, Manchuria, Taiwan
H. Industrialization and Recovery

Industrialization from 1931

I. Stalinism in the Soviet Union

From1927


Industrialization
J. Economic Policies

Collectivization, 1928

mechanization

kulaks resist

suppression

Five-year plans

factories

K. Toward an Industrial Society

L. Totalitarian Rule

Harsh suppression of criticism



1939, ally with Hitler

Chapter Summary

GUM. One of the more notorious institutions coming out of the Russian Revolution was the state department store chain, known by the acronym GUM. A people’s answer to the elite department stores of the prerevolution period, they were beset by problems. For one thing, Russians had little disposable income. For another, the very ideals of the revolution attacked consumerism, making shopping at GUM stores a cultural conundrum. Lastly, because of efforts to prevent workers from being treated as servants, they instead became indifferent salespeople. In the GUM stores, consumerism and communism were at odds, but both were 20th-century phenomena. The interwar period was a period of adjustment to the war, reaction to colonialism, and also of entirely new movements.
Chapter Summary. The interwar period, the 1920s and 1930s, was influenced by the political and economic changes brought by World War I and the crises that ended with World War II. Important social and cultural developments occurred. The emergence of revolutionary and authoritarian regimes was another unsettling factor. The rise of Japan and the United States intensified international competition.
The Roaring Twenties. Many cultural, political, and economic alterations marked the 1920s.

Bouncing Back? Europe faced staggering challenges following World War I. Yet a mood of optimism appeared by the middle of the decade. The German republic was moving forward. A burst of artistic creativity emerged, especially including the Cubist movement. Scientific advances continued. Even though women lost their wartime place in the labor force, they achieved important gains as voting rights were won in several nations. Prosperity and falling birth rates also gave women more freedom. Western European economies were hard hit by the loss of export markets to Japan and the United States.

Other Industrial Centers. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were rewarded for their loyalty to Britain during the war. Achieving independence, they became part of the British Commonwealth of Nations, on par with Britain. The United States developed quickly in the 1920s. An economic boom continued for most of the decade. American factory innovations increased production and were copied by other industrial nations. American culture also was sent abroad, especially jazz and Hollywood films. The U.S. position in the world was complicated by American ambivalence towards global involvement. Isolationism became popular, and the “Red Scare” increased a desire to withdraw from participation in world affairs. Japan continued to strengthen its economy. Its industrial capacity was greatly increased, made necessary by its continuing dependence on imports.

New Authoritarianism: The Rise of Fascism. Italian fascists, led by Mussolini, advocated a strong corporate state with national unity replacing socialism and capitalism. The origins of fascism lay in the late 1800s, when disillusionment with Enlightenment models led to a desire for authoritarian, nationalist government. Dissatisfaction with the outcome of World War I for Italy gave fascists an opportunity to gain power from a weak political system. Mussolini formed a government in 1922 and soon eliminated opposition. Elections were suspended in 1926.

The New Nations of East Central Europe. The new nations looked to western Europe for political inspiration, but they were weakened by grievances stemming from dissatisfaction with the borders awarded by the World War I peace treaties and by interstate rivalries. Most soon turned to authoritarian governments. They remained predominantly agricultural and resisted land reform. Their export-dependent economies were hard-hit by the Depression.

A Balance Sheet. Representative forms of government were affirmed in Germany, Canada, Japan, and other countries. Economic and social changes were accompanied by creativity in many areas. At the same time, democracy was challenged in Italy and central Europe. The ascendancy of the American and Japanese economic power threatened western Europe.

Revolution: The First Waves. Revolutions and anticolonial movements posed a direct challenge to more established powers. Alternatives were advanced to Western political, economic, and social forms.

Mexico’s Upheaval. Two major events influenced 20th-century Latin American developments, the Mexican Revolution and World War I. Although most nations remained neutral, the war disrupted traditional markets and caused a realignment of national economies. A spurt of manufacturing occurred among nations forced to rely upon themselves. At the end of the war, all had to face the emergence of the United States as the region’s dominant foreign power. Mexico had been ruled since 1876 by Porfirio Díaz. Great economic changes had occurred as foreign concessions helped to develop railroads and mining, and brought prosperity to the elite. Foreigners controlled much of the economy. The political system was corrupt, and opposition among workers, peasants, and Indians was repressed. In 1910, moderate reformer Francisco Madero proposed to run against the elderly Díaz, but was arrested as the president won a rigged election. A general rebellion followed, led by Madero, Pancho Villa, and peasant-rights proponent Emiliano Zapata. Díaz was driven from power, but the various factions could not agree. Zapata wanted sweeping land reform and revolted. In 1913 Madero was assassinated. General Victoriano Huerta unsuccessfully tried to restore a Díaz-style regime until forced from power in 1914. Villa and Zapata continued in control of their regions while more moderate leaders controlled the national government under General Alvaro Obregón. The Mexican revolution resembled other outbreaks in agrarian societies undergoing disruptive modernization. All had received large investments of foreign capital, and became dependent on world financial markets. The world banking crisis of 1907–1908 caused distress and stimulated rebellion. Civil war in Mexico ended by 1920; Obregón was the first of a series of elected presidents who tried to consolidate the regime and to rebuild from the serious losses of the civil war. A new constitution of 1917 promised land reform, limitation of foreign ownership, workers’ rights, restriction of the role of the church, and educational reform. President Lázaro Cárdenas (1934–1940) distributed over 40 million acres, mostly as communal holdings (ejidos), and extended primary and rural education.

Culture and Politics in Postrevolutionary Mexico. Nationalism and the concern for Indian culture stimulated many of the reforms. Education stressed Mexico’s Indian heritage and denounced Western capitalism. Artists Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco recaptured the past and offered a program for the future. Mural art mixed romanticism of the Indian heritage with Christian and communist ideas. Popular culture celebrated the heroes of the revolution. Some Mexicans opposed the changes, especially the church and clergy. They backed a conservative peasant movement, the Cristeros, during the 1920s. The United States, busy with World War I, had reacted minimally to the revolution. The revolutionary leadership institutionalized the new regime by establishing a one-party political system. The forerunner of the present Party of the Institutionalized Revolution (PRI) developed from the 1920s into a dominant political force. It incorporated peasant, labor, military, and middle-class sectors. The need to reconcile the various interests limited the worst aspects of one-party rule. Presidents were restricted to one six-year term. By the end of the 20th century, many Mexicans believed that little remained of the original revolutionary principles, and new political parties challenged a weakened PRI.

Revolution in Russia: Liberalism to Communism. Revolutionary outbreaks, spurred by wartime misery in an incompletely reformed society, began in March 1917. A council of workers took over St. Petersburg and precipitated events leading to the tsar’s abdication. A liberal provisional government directed by Alexander Kerensky tried to establish parliamentary reforms while continuing Russian participation in World War I. Economic conditions worsened and public morale dropped. Land reforms desired by peasants were delayed. In November 1917, a second revolution occurred that brought to power the Bolsheviks, soon to become the Communist Party. Lenin took control and quickly concluded an unfavorable peace with Germany. When elections gave another party the majority, Lenin closed the parliament and replaced it with a communist-dominated Congress of Soviets. They controlled the government until 1989. The revolution faced foreign and domestic resistance. The United States, Britain, France, and Japan participated in a brief and unimportant military intervention. Internal revolution was a more serious threat; from 1918 to 1921 tsarist supporters, peasants, and ethnic minorities unsuccessfully contested their rule. Broad economic distress accompanied the disorders.

Stabilization of Russia’s Communist Regime. The communists formed a powerful Red Army under Leon Trotsky to combat their opponents. The army drew strength from its incorporation of talented individuals of humble backgrounds and from inspiring loyalty in the hope of a brighter future. Economic disarray was reduced by Lenin’s New Economic Policy of 1921; it combined state direction with the promise of freedom of action for small businessmen and peasant landowners. By 1923 the revolution had triumphed, and a federal system, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was created. Ethnic Russian domination was preserved in the central state apparatus. Despite many democratic trappings, the Soviet political system soon became a harsh authoritarian regime.

Soviet Experimentation: The first years of communist rule were an experimental period when many groups debated policies and jockeyed for power. Workers and women achieved new gains. In the early years, education and literacy spread rapidly. Internal rivalry followed Lenin’s death in 1924. Stalin, a representative of a strongly nationalist version of communism, won out. Lenin had thought that the Russian experience would spread throughout the world; a Comintern was founded to guide the process. Stalin’s regime concentrated on internal Russian development, or “socialism in one country.” Opponents were killed or exiled. Industrialization was accelerated and peasant land ownership was attacked.

Toward Revolution in China. The abdication of the last Qing emperor in 1912 opened the way for a long political struggle for control of a united China. The alliance that had overthrown the Manchus shattered, and regional warlords rose to domination. Yuan Shikai, who hoped to found a new dynasty, headed the most powerful group of warlords. Wealthy merchants and bankers in coastal cities comprised a second power center, while students and teachers were an influential, but defenseless, group. Secret societies had strength in some regions. All the factions became overshadowed by Japan’s imperialist entry into China.

Thinking Historically: A Century of Revolutions. The series of 20th-century revolutions surpasses those of the 18th and early 19th centuries. Peasant rural discontent was a significant factor; so was the disruption brought by the Industrial Revolution and the Western-dominated global market system. Colonial peoples sought dignity and employment. Intellectual currents, ideas centering on a better life for all in society, influenced many leaders. A common theme was to reduce Western interference and assert increased national autonomy.

China’s May Fourth Movement and the Rise of the Marxist Alternative. Sun Yatsen, the head of a loose anti-Manchu coalition, the Revolutionary Alliance, claimed the succession to the dynasty, but lacked power to counter warlord opposition. The support for the Alliance was confined to the urban trading centers of the south and central coast. The Alliance elected Sun president in 1911 and established a European-style parliament. Sun conceded his powerlessness by resigning the presidency in favor of Yuan Shikai in 1912. He soon created an autocratic regime and worked to become emperor. Rivalry with other warlords, republican nationalists, and the Japanese checked his ambitions. During World War I, Japan seized Germany’s spheres of influence in China and then moved to build a dominant position. In 1915 they presented Yuan with the Twenty-One Demands; acceptance would have made China a Japanese protectorate. Yuan ignored the demands and a rival warlord deposed him in 1916. When Japan received confirmation at Versailles of their control of the former German concessions, mass nationalist demonstrations occurred on May 4, 1919. They were the beginning of an extended period of protest against Japan. The May Fourth movement initially aimed to make China a liberal democracy; Confucianism was rejected in favor of Western ideas. The movement did not take into account the realities of the political situation: China was ruled by warlords, and gradualist solutions did offer a remedy for the deprived status of the peasantry. Many Chinese wanted more radical alternatives, and some turned to the example of the Russian Revolution and spread Marxist theories. Thinkers, such as Li Dazhou, reworked Marxism to make peasants the vanguard of change. All China had been exploited by the West, he reasoned, and all Chinese had to rise against their exploiters. Li’s thoughts influenced the young Mao Zedong. In 1921 Marxists founded the Communist Party of China.

The Seizure of Power by China’s Guomindang. During the 1920s, the Guomindang (Nationalist Party of China) struggled to survive in the South, under the leadership of Sun Yatsen’s death in 1925. As the party built an army, Sun evolved an ideology stressing a strong central government and social reforms for peasants and workers. Guomindang leaders, however, neglected internal social concerns and instead focused on political and international issues. Support for the party came from urban businesspeople and merchants of coastal cities. In 1924 the Guomindang and Communists concluded an alliance. They gained support from the Soviet Union. The Whampoa Military Academy, founded in 1924 and partially staffed by Soviets, helped Guomindang military efficiency. Its first head was Chiang Kai-shek. The Guomindang leaderships’ continued concern with party organization kept them from meeting the serious problems facing China’s economy and people. Sun was ignorant of rural conditions and did not recognize that many among the peasantry lived in misery.

Mao and the Peasant Option. Mao Zedong formulated an ideology based on peasant support for revolutionary solutions to China’s problems. Chiang Kai-shek became leader of the Guomindang after Sun’s death in 1925. By the late 1920s, Chiang had defeated most warlords and gained recognition as the ruler of China. In 1927 Chiang moved against his Communist allies, beginning a civil war that did not end until 1949. In 1934 Mao led the Long March to Shanxi in the remote northwest, where a new communist center formed.

The Global Great Depression. The Great Depression that began in 1929 had worldwide impact. Authoritarian regimes multiplied. The economic and political changes led to World War II. Globalization declined and Western dominance appeared to collapse.

Causation. The impact of World War I influenced European economies into the early 1920s. Serious inflation in Germany was only resolved through massive currency devaluation in 1923. A general recession occurred in 1920 and 1921, although production levels rose again by 1923. Britain had a very slow recovery because of competition within its export markets. There were many general structural problems. Western farmers faced chronic overproduction; prices fell, and continuing flight from the land followed. Overproduction similarly harmed the dependent areas of the world economy and lessened their ability to import Western manufactured goods. Governments lacked knowledge of economics and provided little leadership during the 1920s. Nationalist selfishness predominated and protectionism further reduced market opportunities.

The Debacle. The depression began in October 1929 when the New York stock market crashed. Stock values fell and banks failed. Americans called back their European loans and caused bank failures. Investment capital disappeared. Industrial production fell, causing unemployment and lower wages. Both blue-collar and middle-class workers suffered as the Depression grew worse from 1929 to 1933. The intensity and duration of the Great Depression was without precedent; full recovery came only with the production rise forced by World War II. As millions suffered, the optimistic assumptions of the 19th century shattered. A few economies escaped incorporation in the depression. The Soviet Union, isolated by its Communist-directed economy, went about the business of creating rapid industrial development without outside capital. In most other nations, the Depression worsened existing hard times. Western markets were unable to absorb imports, causing unemployment in economies producing foods and raw materials. Japan’s dependence on exports caused similar problems. Latin American governments responded to the crisis by greater involvement in planning and direction; the Japanese increased their suspicions of the West and thought about gaining secure markets in Asia. In the West, the Depression led to welfare programs and to radical social and political experiments. The global quality of the Depression made it impossible for any purely national policy to restore prosperity and contributed to the second international world war.

Responses to the Depression in Western Europe. Western governments were unable to counter economic distress, causing people to seek solutions from radical parties of the right and left. Some parliamentary states were unable to cope with the crisis. In France, radical movements grew. An elected Popular Front of Liberals, Socialists, and Communists came to power in 1936, but was blocked in issues of social reform and foreign policy by strong conservative opposition. The Front lost office in 1938. A few nations managed a constructive response. Scandinavian nations under moderate socialist regimes increased spending and provided social insurance. The British had some success as innovative businesspeople opened new industrial sectors.

The New Deal. The United States, after following policies similar to the European response, reacted creatively. Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal enacted social insurance programs, increased government spending to stimulate the economy, and generally expanded government intervention into American society. The measures did not end depression nor create a full welfare state, but they did restore American confidence in their political system.

The Authoritarian Response. Authoritarian regimes spread in Germany, Latin America, Japan, and the Soviet system became more totalitarian.

The Rise of Nazism. The impact of the Depression in Germany led to a Fascist regime. Many veterans reacted to Germany losing the war and the peace settlement by opposing weak parliamentary regimes. Along with landlords and business groups, they supported authoritarian leaders promising social reform while attacking trade unions, and Socialist or Communist organizations. Other nations had fascist parties during the 1920s, but they gained power only in Italy. Adolf Hitler’s Nazi (National Socialist) Party in Germany made fascism a major historical force. Hitler stressed the need for unity and the weakness of parliamentary government. He attracted individuals longing for a return to the past or opposing Socialism and Communism. Hitler also played on popular grievances, such as supposed Jewish influence in Germany, and called for undoing the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. The Nazis won the largest share of the vote in 1932, allowing Hitler to come to power by arrangements with other leaders in 1933. He quickly began to build a totalitarian administration. All opponents in and out of government were purged; his secret police, the Gestapo, arrested thousands of people. The state emphasized military production to help restore the economy. German anti-Semitism provided a scapegoat for societal problems and this hostility turned into the Holocaust after 1940. Hitler’s foreign policy was based on preparation for war that would restore World War I losses and create a large land empire in Europe. Hitler began the process when Germany suspended reparation payments, and in 1935, began rearming. In 1936 Germany occupied the Rhineland. Britain and France did nothing to counter the violations of the Versailles treaty. In 1938 Hitler united Austria to Germany and later marched into part of Czechoslovakia. Britain and France at Munich accepted Germany’s move in return for promises of peace. Hitler proceeded to take the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939 and signed an alliance with the Soviet Union. When Hitler invaded Poland in 1939, Britain and France declared war against Germany.

The Spread of Fascism and the Spanish Civil War. Other nations, especially in eastern Europe, copied the German example. Mussolini in 1935 attacked and defeated Ethiopia without significant reaction from the international community. In 1936, civil war began in Spain between parliamentary republic and authoritarian forces. Germany and Italy supported the Spanish right; Russia and individual Western volunteers aided the left. The principal democracies remained inert. The republicans were defeated by 1939. War began in China with a Japanese invasion in 1937. In 1940 Germany, Italy, and Japan concluded an alliance. When the war began, the European powers desiring to preserve the status quo were unprepared for conflict. The United States wished to remain neutral.

Economic and Political Changes in Latin America. During and after World War I, Latin American economies expanded and population growth continued. The middle and working class challenged traditional oligarchies. New parties formed and attacked liberalism and laissez-faire capitalism. World War I interrupted European demand for its products. Local industries formed to produce replacements for unavailable European products. A few exports had increased European demand. After the war, a slowing economy and inflation caused increasing political unrest. Population growth, swelled by heavy immigration, contributed to urban concentration and increased social problems.

The Great Crash and Latin American Responses. The Great Depression emphasized the weaknesses of Latin America’s dependent economies and political systems. Foreign investment ceased and purchase of export products declined. Conservative groups, supported by the military and the church, rose and adopted corporatism, an ideology making the state a mediator between different social groups. Elements of fascism also were popular. Among the reforming regimes, the most successful was Mexico’s Cárdenas administration. Large-scale land reform created communal farms with a credit system to support them. Foreign oil companies were nationalized and rural education expanded. A new regime in Cuba was more typical. A revolution in 1933 aimed at social reform and breaking United States domination. Moderates won control and reforms resulted.

The Vargas Regime in Brazil. A contested election of 1929 led to civil war and the emergence of Getúlio Vargas as president. Vargas promised reforms to help ease the crisis caused by the collapse of coffee exports. He launched a centralized political program, prevented coups by communists and fascists, and with military support, imposed a new constitution in 1937 that created an authoritarian regime based on ideas from Mussolini’s Italy. Vargas joined the Allies during World War II in return for Allied aid. Little open opposition was allowed to his corporatist government. When reactions to his policies increased, Vargas sought support from labor and the Communists. Under criticism from right and left, Vargas committed suicide in 1954.

Argentina: Populism, Perón, and the Military. A military coup by a coalition of nationalists, fascists, and socialists ended the rule of the middle-class Radical party when the economy collapsed in 1929. The coup failed, but the succeeding conservative governments, despite industrial growth, did not bring prosperity. The labor movement became stronger. In 1943 the military nationalists who wanted to modernize the state, seized control. Juan D. Perón emerged as leader, gaining support by supporting worker demands. His wife Eva Duarte—Evita—became his spokesperson among the lower classes. Perón created a coalition embracing workers, industrialists, and the military, depending upon his personal charisma and repression to maintain rule. Foreign-owned industries were nationalized. Perón’s regime by the 1950s could not solve Argentina’s growing economic problems. His coalition fell apart, and a military coup drove him from office in 1955. The country remained under his shadow for the next 20 years as military governments attempted to solve economic and political problems. Labor groups continued to support Perón. He was elected president in 1973, but his death in 1974 returned Argentina to military rule.

The Militarization of Japan. The Depression contributed to the rise of nationalist

groups in Japan. Some opposed Western values; others favored an authoritarian regime

and military expansion. The military, without civilian backing, already had conquered the

Chinese province of Manchuria in 1931. Unsuccessful coup attempts by younger officers

in 1932 and 1936 gave the military a stronger influence in government. After 1936, a series

of militarist prime ministers ruled under the influence of General Tojo Hideki. When war

began with China in 1937, the military became even more powerful; Japan occupied parts

of eastern China. By the close of 1938, Japan controlled a regional empire that included

Korea, Manchuria, and Taiwan. Korean culture was suppressed while workers and peasants

were exploited. Japan’s leaders looked for wider conquests.



Industrialization and Recovery. Active government policies quelled the effects of the Depression. Japan turned fully to industrialization after 1931 and its economy grew significantly. New industrial policies were introduced to prevent unrest and stabilize the labor force. Mass patriotism and group loyalty were emphasized in government policies. By 1937, Japan was a major global economic force.

Stalinism in the Soviet Union. The experimental time of early communist rule faded after Stalin consolidated power in 1927. Stalin’s authoritarian rule aimed to make the Soviet Union a fully industrial society under complete state control. The effort was carried on with minimal Western involvement.

Economic Policies. A massive program of agricultural collectivization began in 1928. Stalin wanted to replace individual holdings with state-run farms. The policy aimed to facilitate agricultural mechanization and increase communist control of peasants. Landless laborers welcomed the policy, but kulaks resisted by destroying livestock and property. Stalin’s determination to continue the policy produced serious famine, while millions of kulaks were killed or sent to Siberia. In the long run, collectivization did not work. Agricultural production remained a major weakness of the Soviet economy. Stalin’s industrial policies were more successful. State-directed five-year plans expanded development as the government constructed massive factories specializing in heavy industry that made Russia independent of the West and prepared for possible war. Market-demand stimulation was replaced by centralized resource allocation and production quotas. The process was wasteful, but great growth occurred: Russia became the third industrial power, behind the United States and Germany, when the West was mired in the Great Depression.

Toward an Industrial Society. Industrialization in Russia produced results similar to the Western experience. Workers congregated in crowded and unsatisfactory urban housing. Factory discipline was strict, but managers introduced incentives to increase production. An extensive welfare system opened that partly compensated for modest living standards.

Totalitarian Rule. Stalin created an extreme version of the totalitarian state. Opponents or suspected opponents were executed or sent to Siberian labor camps. The state and the party were subject to Stalin’s will. The state controlled information and the secret police were everywhere. Until 1917, Russian diplomatic involvement had been very limited, but Hitler’s emergence raised concern. The Russians tried to cooperate with the West to check the German threat, but Britain and France were very suspicious of the Soviets and avoided action. The Russians, to gain time and to allow an attack of Poland and Finland, concluded an agreement with Hitler in 1939.

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Economic Depression, Authoritarian Response and Democratic Retreat. Nationalist reactions during the 1930s further weakened global ties. Depression-stimulated narrow economic policies intensified economic collapse. Japan and Germany moved to military expansion. The Soviet Union looked inward. No state appeared capable of restoring the previous unity.


KEY TERMS
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928): a multination treaty, sponsored by American and French leaders, that outlawed war.
Cubist movement: headed by Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes.
Fascism: political ideology that became predominant in Italy under Benito Mussolini during the 1920s; attacked the weakness of democracy and the corruption and class conflict of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs.
Benito Mussolini: Fascist premier of Italy (r. 1922–1943); formed the fascio di combattimento in 1919.

Syndicalism: organization of industrial workers to control the means of production and distribution.
British Commonwealth of Nations: free association of former British dominions states on equal terms formed in 1926.
Henry Ford: introduced the assembly line in 1913; allowed semiskilled workers to put products together through repetitive operations.
Mexican Revolution, 1910–1920: civil war; challenged Porfio Díaz in 1910 and initiated a revolution after losing fraudulent elections.

Francisco Madero: moderate democratic Mexican reformer; assassinated in 1913.
Pancho Villa: Mexican revolutionary leader in northern Mexico after 1910.
Emiliano Zapata: Mexican revolutionary commander of a guerrilla movement centered at Morelos; demanded sweeping land reform.
Victoriano Herta: came to power in Mexico, 1913; forced from power 1914; tried to install Díaz-style government.
Alvaro Obregón: Mexican general; emerged as leader of government in 1915; later elected president.

Mexican Constitution of 1917: promised land and educational reform, limited foreign ownership, guaranteed rights for workers, and restricted clerical education and property ownership; never fully implemented.
Lázaro Cárdenas: Mexican president (1934–1940); responsible for large land redistribution to create communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education.
Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco: Mexican artists working after the Mexican Revolution; famous for wall murals on public buildings that mixed images of the Indian past with Christian and communist themes.
Corridos: popular ballads written to celebrate heroes of the Mexican Revolution.
Cristeros: conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; a reaction against secularism.
Party of Institutionalized Revolution (PRI): inclusive Mexican political party developing from the 1920s; ruled for the rest of the 20th century.
Soviet: council of workers; seized the government of St. Petersburg in 1917 to precipitate the Russian Revolution.
Aleksander Kerensky: liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; attempted development of parliamentary rule, but supported continuance of the war against Germany.
Russian Communist Party: Bolshevik wing of the Russian socialists; came to power under Lenin in the November 1917 revolution.
Council of People’s Commissars: government council composed of representatives from Russian soviets and headed by Lenin; came to power after November 1917.
Social Revolutionary Party: majority vote winners in first elections after November 1917; removed from office by Bolsheviks.
Congress of Soviets: Lenin’s parliamentary institution based on Soviets under Bolshevik domination; replaced the Social Revolutionary Party.
Red Army: built up under the leadership of Leon Trotsky; its victories secured communist power after the early years of turmoil following the Russian Revolution.
New Economic Policy (NEP): initiated in 1921 by Lenin; combined the state establishing basic economic policies with individual initiative; allowed food production to recover.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.): Russian federal system controlled by the Communist Party established in 1923.
Supreme Soviet: communist-controlled parliament of the U.S.S.R.
Comintern: Communist International, an organization under dominance of the U.S.S.R.; designed to encourage the spread of communism in the rest of the world.
Joseph Stalin: Lenin’s successor as leader of the U.S.S.R.; strong nationalist view of communism; crushed opposition to his predominance; ruled U.S.S.R. until his death in 1953.
Collectivization: creation of large state-run farms replacing individual holdings; allowed mechanization of agriculture and more efficient control over peasants.
Yuan Shikai: warlord in northern China after the fall of the Qing dynasty; president of China in 1912; hoped to become emperor, but blocked in 1916 by Japanese intervention in China.
Sun Yatsen: head of the Revolutionary Alliance that led the 1911 revolt against the Qing; president of China in 1911, but yielded to Yuan Shikai in 1912; created the Guomindang in 1919; died in 1925.
May Fourth Movement: acceptance at Versailles of Japanese gains in China during World War I led to demonstrations and the beginning of a movement to create a liberal democracy.
Li Dazhao: Chinese Marxist intellectual; rejected traditional views and instead saw peasants as the vanguard of socialist revolution; influenced Mao Zedong.
Guomindang (National Party): founded by Sun Yatsen in 1919; main support from urban businesspeople and merchants; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925.
Whampoa Military Academy: Guomindang military academy founded in 1924 with Soviet support; its first director was Chiang Kai-shek.
Chiang Kai-shek: leader of the Guomindang from 1925; contested with the communists for control of China until defeated in 1949.
Mao Zedong: Communist leader who advocated the role of the peasantry in revolution; led the Communists to victory and ruled China from 1949 to 1976.
Long March: Communist retreat under Guomindang pressure in 1934; shifted center of communist power to Shanxi province.
Popular Front: alliance of French Socialist, Liberal, and Communist parties; won election in 1936; blocked from reform efforts by conservative opposition; fell in 1938.
New Deal: President Franklin Roosevelt’s program to combat economic depression.
Totalitarian state: a 20th century form of government that exercised direct control over all aspects of its subjects; existed in Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, and other Communist states.
Popular Front: alliance of French socialist, liberal, and communist parties; won election in 1936; blocked from reform efforts by conservative opposition; fell in 1938.
New Deal: President Franklin Roosevelt’s program to combat economic depression.

Totalitarian state: a 20th-century form of government that exercised direct control over all aspects of its subjects; existed in Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, and other Communist states.
Gestapo: German secret police under Hitler’s Nazi regime.
Spanish Civil War: civil war between republican and autocratic supporters; with support from Germany and Italy, the autocratic regime of Francisco Franco triumphed.
Import substitution economies: Latin American and other nations’ effort to produce what had formerly been imported.
Corporatism: conservative political movement emphasizing the organic nature of society, with the state as mediator between different groups.
Getúlio Vargas: became president of Brazil following a contested election of 1929; led an authoritarian state; died in 1954.
Juan Perón: dominant authoritarian and populist leader in Argentina from the mid-1940s; driven into exile in 1955; returned and elected president in 1973; died in 1974.
Eva Duarte (Evita): wife of Juan Perón; the regime’s spokesperson for the lower social classes; died in 1952.
Tojo Hideki: Japanese general who dominated internal politics from the mid-1930s; gave the military dominance over civilian cabinets.
Spanish Civil War: civil war between republican and autocratic supporters; with support from Germany and Italy, the autocratic regime of Francisco Franco triumphed.
Import substitution economies: Latin American and other nations’ effort to produce what had formerly been imported.

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