Chapter One: New World Beginnings

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Chapter One: New World Beginnings
New World A social and political experiment

Will never happen again

Huge, Fertile, Temperate, “Uninhabited”

USA will one day reach its peak……

Native Americans maize, beans, squash (productive, healthy, trio)

Small, scattered, impermanent settlements

Slavery & Plantation system from the Portuguese

Columbus’s Voyage Renaissance ideas = questioning & use of technology

Created interdependent global economic system

Europe provides – markets, capital, technology

Africa provides – labor

New World provides – raw materials (metals & soil)

90% of natives killed by 1592, primarily by disease

Treaty of Tordesillas divided New World between Spain & Portugal


Balboa Pacific Ocean

Magellan circumnavigation of globe

Ponce de Leon Florida

Coronado Arizona & New Mexico

De Soto Mississippi River

Pizarro Incas (Peru)

Cortes Aztecs (Mexico)

John Cabot Northeastern North America

Cartier St. Lawrence River

La Salle Mississippi River

Father Junipero Serra California missions


St. Augustine, Florida 1st permanent settlement in North America

Spanish (1565)

Jamestown, Virginia English (1607)

Quebec, Canada French (1608)

Santa Fe, New Mexico Spanish (1610)

chapter two: the planting of english america
England under Elizabeth promote Protestantism, seize Spanish ships,

raid Spanish settlements

Defeat of the Spanish Armada weakened Spanish spirit

Ensured British naval dominance

Encouraged British nationalism

Increased the Queen’s popularity

Factors promoting colonization… 1) enclosure system – landlords fenced areas for sheep grazing, forced small farmers out

2) primogeniture laws – only first-born sons inherited land

3) invention of joint-stock company – investors could pool capital

4) peace with Spain

Jamestown – 1607 Joint Stock company to find gold (“get rich quick”)

Settlers unaccustomed to fending for themselves

Colonists ate cats, rats, dogs, corpses
John Smith “He who shall not work, shall not eat”

Saved colony

Lord DeLaWar tough policies against Indians
Powhatan Wars 1st War > fragile peace

John Rolfe married Pocahantas (Powhatan’s daughter)

2nd War > banishment and extinction of Indians
tobacco perfected by John Rolfe

ruinous to soil

fluctuating prices

created demand for fresh labor

Dutch sold 20 Africans in1619
House of Burgesses 1st representative self-government in colonies

Maryland – 1634 founded by Lord Baltimore

For financial profit & refuge for Catholics

Maryland Act of Toleration Catholics were quickly surrounded by Protestants and passed this Act of religious freedom for all Christians to guarantee Catholic rights in the face of a Protestant majority

Carolinas – 1670 founded by Charles II during “Restoration Period”>

(Charles I dismissed Parliament, beheaded, Oliver Cromwell ruled with no king, finally Charles II “restored to throne)

Slave-oriented; rice growing

North Carolina – 1712 Virginia outcasts moved south to Carolina

Independent-minded, democratic, NOT aristocratic

Broke away to form their own colony

Georgia – 1733 founded by James Oglethorpe

1) buffer from Spanish Florida and French Louisiana, received $ from British gov.)

2) haven for British debtors

No slavery allowed at first

PLANTATION COLONY SIMILARITIES Staple crops (tobacco, rice, indigo,

later cotton)



Scattered population

Few churches or schools

Followed the Church of England

Need to expand westward for soil

County government

chapter three: settling the northern colonies
Puritans wanted total purification of Church of England

Total de-Catholicization

Some people pre-destined for salvation

Strict adherence to Puritanism a sign of salvation

Separatists extreme Puritans

Wanted to break from Church of England

Migrated to Holland > negotiated to settle in Virginia

(less than ½ of settlers actually Separatist)

Plymouth-1620 blown off-course – landed at Plymouth
Mayflower Compact agreed to submit to the “will of the majority” & follow rules

First step toward self-government

William Bradford governor of Plymouth (30 times)
(Plymouth merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691)

Massachusetts Bay – 1629 non-Separatists

Brought their charter to America – went against King’s rules

John Winthrop Governor – wanted to create “City on a Hill”
Congregational Church tax-supported (“established”)- ministers hired,

fired, salaried by members

  • clergy not allowed to hold political office

  • church attendance legally required

“freemen”- adult, male, church members, VOTE
Town Meetings all male property holders

Discuss issues

Majority vote

Anne Hutchinson truly “saved” need not bother to obey laws of God

or man (anti-nomianism)

banished , traveled to Rhode Island, then New York

only she and 1 child survived Indian attacks

Roger Williams extreme Separatist

Wanted to compensate Indians

Said to have “new & dangerous” opinions

Banished formed Rhode Island

Rhode Island – 1644 complete freedom of religion

Full manhood suffrage

Freedom of opportunity


Pequot Wars – 1637 Pequots annihilated
King Philip’s War – 1675 Metacom formed an alliance, coordinated attacks

Throughout the English countryside

Lasting defeat for New England Indians

New England Confederation – 1643 Plymouth and Massachusetts

Formed primarily for defense

Dominion of New England – 1686 imposed by London

To promote efficiency in carrying out Navigation Acts

Headed by Sir Edmund Andros

Curbed town meetings, restricted courts, press, schools

Glorious Revolution Catholic James II replaced by Protestant William and Mary

Dominion of New England collapsed – Andros tried to flee in women’s clothes but was sent back to England


New York – 1664 originally New Netherland est. by Dutch West India

Feudal estates along Hudson River, patroonships given to promoters who would settle with 50 people

Peter Stuyvesant defeated Swedish intruders on the Delaware

Eventually surrendered to England and renamed New York after the Duke of York

(Wall Street built by Dutch on Manhattan Island to protect from Indian attacks)
Leislers Rebellion (1689) animosity in NYC between landholders and merchants

Pennsylvania – 1681 William Penn - Quaker


Liberal land policies

Benevolent toward Indians

Freedom of worship

No provision for military

Paxton Boys Rebellion frontier Paxton boys marched on Philadelphia to protest Quaker leniency toward Indians

New Jersey – 1664 proprietors received land grant from Duke of York


Fertile soil = grain

Much land

Lumber, commerce, farms

Ethnically mixed

Religious toleration
chapter FOUR: american life in the 17th century

Disease! ½ of population did not reach 20 years old

Immigrants young, single men
Weak families many unwed mothers
Tobacco overproduction > low prices > more acres planted > need for more land and labor
Labor Headright System – whoever paid passage for laborers received 50 acres

Led to masses of impoverished freemen

Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) resentment of Governor Berkley’s friendly Indian policies

Indian attacks prompted Bacon and others to attack Indians and sack Jametown

Bacon died of disease and Berkley crushed remaining rebels (20 hanged)

Slavery fewer English workers due to: rising wages and fear of mutiny like Bacon’s Rebellion

10,000 Africans to American between 1700 & 1710

-early slave codes made adults and their children slaves for life

-Chesapeake only society ever where slaves maintained their population through reproduction

Society Great Planters (slaves, huge estates)

Small Farmers


Water is primary means of transportation


Healthy lived 10 years longer than Chesapeake

(Mass. Gov. came from family of 27 kids from same mother)
Immigrants families

Early marriages

Frequent childbirth

Family Stability meant less women’s rights

Society small villages

Settled in orderly fashion
Massachusetts School Law ‘Ye Olde Deluder Satan Law (1647)

Towns of more than 50 families required to provide elementary education

Harvard College (1636) first in America

Religion trouble with declining membership

Half-Way Covenant (1662) -partial Church membership rights to those not yet converted

-Gradually erased distinction between “elect” and others

-Strict purity sacrificed for wider participation

Life farming difficult due to rocks

Timber= shipbuilding

Harbors (cod)

chapter FIVE: COLONIAL SOCIETY in the 18th century

Population doubled every 25 years

1 colonist for every 3 Englishmen

90% rural/agricultural

Ethnically mixed: German/Scots-Irish

Professions clerics most honored

Industry agriculture

Triangular Trade: rum>slaves>sugar

Molasses Act – 1773 designed to cut colonial trade with the French West Indies

Religion “established” churches: Anglican: NY, MD, VA,


Congregational: Mass, CT,

New Hamp.

Great Awakening 1730s-1740s -began in Massachusetts where Puritan piety had been eroding

-Preachers said spirituality could be emotional and that salvation was open to all who appealed to God

Jonathan Edwards “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”

Men completely dependant on God’s graces

George Whitefield spellbinding orator

Revolutionized spiritual life for colonists

“old lights” skeptical of emotionalism & theatrics
“new lights” wanted to revitalize religion
EFFECTS Baptist religion created

Of Great Awakening Increased number of churches

Missionary work began

More centers of higher learning: Princeton, Dartmouth, etc.

Trend toward equality in America

** First spontaneous mass movement of colonists

Press John Peter Zenger Trial (1734) charged with libel from corrupt Royal


Convicted by judges from England; Jury of colonists declared him “not guilty”

** precedent for Freedom of Expression

Politics varied structure Royal Governors – appt. by King

Proprietors – chose governors

Self-governing – elected governors

Power of the Purse – colonial assemblies could withhold governor’s salaries if dissatisfied
Assembly Lower House – elected by colonists

Suffrage ½ of males disenfranchised because of property or religious restrictions BUT land was easy to acquire

Enlightenment John Locke – natural rights

God gave man powers of observation & reason

God created world & then left it to man

Reason & man more important than God

chapter six: duel for north america

French in North America slow population growth

Fur traders (beaver pelts)

Jesuit missionaries

Got along well with Native population


King William’s War & British vs. French

Queen Anne’s War guerilla-style warfare

British won
War of Jenkins’ Ear English captain had ear sliced off by Spanish

Took ear back to England to encourage war

War of Austrian Succession England won
Ohio River Valley spot of contention btwn. Britain & France

FRENCH & INDIAN WAR- 1754 (a.k.a. Seven Year’s War)

Albany Congress -called by Britain to try to achieve coordinated colonial action

-prompted Ben Franklin’s “Join or Die” cartoon

Col. Braddock 1st British General; haughty

Lost to French at Fort Duquesne

William Pitt Braddock’s replacement

Liked by colonists; “the Great Commoner”

Wolfe captured Quebec for the British after siege

Defeated Montcalm

George Washington proved himself militarily

Treaty of Paris – 1763 French out of North America

Spain received Louisiana & Cuba

England got Florida and land to Miss. River

EFFECTS of French & Indian War colonial self-confidence

Valuable military experience

Feeling that British were incompetent

Iroquois Confederacy destroyed

Colonists desire to push westward past Appalachians

Britain had HUGE war debt

Pontiac’s Rebellion – 1763 alliance of Indians tried to drive British/colonists out of Ohio Valley - 2,000 were killed

British retaliated with smallpox blankets

Proclamation of 1763 -prohibited colonial settlement beyond Appalachians

-Designed to work out Indian problem

-Colonists resentful and ignored

-British becoming annoyed with “unruly” colonists

chapter seven: The road to revolution
English Economic Policy – Pre-French & Indian War
Mercantilism Export more than import

Accumulate precious metals

Colonies used to support mother country:

Furnish ships, sailors, trade

Provide markets for English goods

Keep gold & silver within Empire

Navigation Laws – 1650 restricted commerce to & from colonies

Manufactures that competed with Britain were restricted, such as: wool & beaver hats (Hat Act)

Currency Act forbade colonists from issuing their own money – colonists ignored

Board of Trade – 1696 controlled colonial economy (“joke”)

BENEFITS of Mercantilism -loosely enforced (Salutary Neglect)

-Gave colonists sense of “Rights of Englishmen”

-Britain obligated to protect colonies

-Colonists not taxed
MENACE of Mercantilism -economic entrepreneurship stifled

-Southern colonies favored because they had no manufacturing that competed

-Feeling of being “used” by Britain

English Economic Policy post-French & Indian War
Prime Minister George Grenville – 1763 ordered enforcement of Navigation Acts
Sugar Act – 1764 designed to raise revenue for Britain to pay back debt of French& Indian War
Quartering Act – 1765 colonists to provide food & lodging for British troops left in colonies

(New York legislature suspended for failure to comply)

Stamp Act – 1765 -tax on paper goods

-Led to cries of “No Taxation W/Out Representation”

-Colonists wanted Actual Representation (a seat on Parliament)

-British claimed colonists had Virtual Representation (Parliament represented all British subjects)

Stamp Act Congress met in New York City

27 delegates from 9 colonies

statement of rights & grievances

policy of “non-importation” from Britain

Virginia Resolves colonists should have same rights as all Englishmen
Sons of Liberty Sam Adams

Took law into own hands

Forced stamp agents to resign
Declaratory Act – 1766 repealed the Stamp Tax

Declared Parliament had binding right over colonies in all cases

Townshend Acts – 1766 import duty on glass, lead, paper, tea

“Indirect Tax” – paid at ports

Boston Massacre – 1770 British troops in colonies to keep law & order

Colonists taunted troops > were fired upon

John Adams defended British troops
Committees of Correspondance organized by Sam Adams in Massachusetts

Spread propaganda

Soon became inter-colonial
Tea Act – 1773 British East India Co. facing bankruptcy

Granted monopoly in America

Led to Boston Tea Party

Repressive Acts – 1774 a.k.a. Coercive Acts, Intolerable Acts

Designed to punish Boston for Tea Party

Closed Boston Port until damages paid

Mass. Charter rights revoked

Town Meetings restricted

Quebec Act French Quebecois guaranteed Catholicism

Boundary extended to Ohio River

Alarmed colonial land speculators & anti-Catholics

First Continental Congress – 1774 -all colonies BUT Georgia

-Sam Adams, John Adams, George Washington, Patrick Henry

-Demands rejected by Parliament

Declaration of Rights rights of Englishmen
The Association called for complete boycott of British goods
Suffolk Resolves delivered by Paul Revere declaring Virginia fully supported Boston, Mass.

Lexington & Concord – 1775 British troops ordered to seize colonial gunpowder

Colonial “minute men” refused to disperse

Shots fired, 300 British killed


Outstanding leaders (George Washington, Marquis de LaFayette)

Fighting on home terrain

Belief in a just cause


Lack of unity

Sectional jealousy

Inflation due to “worthless” currency

Lack of military supplies (esp. clothes, shoes)

1/3 Loyalist; 1/3 Patriot; 1/3 ambivalent
Second Continental Congress – 1775 selected G. Washington to lead colonial army
Olive Branch Petition professed American loyalty

Begged King George to end hostilities

Rejected by King
*contradiction colonists professing loyalty while fighting British

Common Sense by Thomas Paine – 1776 -radical, influential, eloquent call for independence AND republicanism

-“These are the times that try men’s souls”


Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution (6/7/1776) Thomas Jefferson appointed head of committee to prepare statement justifying declaration of independence


Trenton Washington vs. Howe

Washington crossed the Delaware on 12/26 and captured 1,000 hungover Hessian mercenaries

Saratoga -Gates vs. Burgoyne

-Colonial victory showed French colonists could win

-French began sending: money, equipment, navy, ½ of all colonial troops were now French

- 1778 Franco-American alliance

Yorktown – 1781 colonists were on verge of mutiny

Cornwallis was surrounded by Washington on land & French at sea > surrendered

Benedict Arnold plotted with British to sell out West Point
George Rogers Clark seized various western forts
John Paul Jones destroyed British merchant shipping

Peace of Paris – 1783 -Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay sent to negotiate

-France scheming with Spain to confine United States to east of Allegheny Mtns.

-US made treaty without consulting French allies
TERMS -United States gained independence

-Boundaries of US: Mississippi River at West (France has rest), Great Lakes at north (Britain has Canada), Florida at south (Spain has rest)

- loyalists not persecuted


“leveling” reduced property qualifications for voting

trade organizations for artisans

separation of Church & State Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom (1786

gradual emancipation many northern states abolished slavery

all states but Georgia eliminated slave trade

women idea of “Republican motherhood” – mothers duty to teach civic virtue to children

State constitutions most had….. Bill of Rights

Annual elections

Weak executive & judicial branches

Powerful legislatures

Some state capitals moved west

State sovereignty coined money

Raised armies

Erected tariffs


a.k.a. “Firm League of Friendship” point of contention over western lands, some had, some didn’t – why not just give it all to the federal government?...

POSITIVES -stepping stone toward workable Constitution

(dubbed the “Critical Period” by Charles Fiske)

-Created system for orderly settlement of western lands
Land Ordinance (1785) -authorized sale of land to pay national debt

-System to survey land

-Established 6 square mile townships

-Every 16th section reserved for public school

Northwest Ordinance (1787) -60,000 residents meant territory could apply for statehood with all rights & privileges

-Forbade slavery in territories

PROBLEMS no executive

No judicial

Each state had only 1 vote (regardless of size)

2/3 vote needed to pass legislation

no power to regulate commerce

no power to collect taxes

RESULTS no one took USA seriously… -England refused to send Foreign Minister

-Spain closed mouth of Mississippi River

-Algerian pirates destroyed Mediterranean shipping
States quarreled over boundaries

States levied taxes against each other

States printed their own currency

Hard to fight internal rebellions


Shays’s Rebellion -1786 backcountry farmers of western Mass.

Farms foreclosed upon

Demanded paper money, lighter taxes, end to foreclosures
Massachusetts sent in troops

Upper classes very frightened

** clear need for stronger federal government

Annapolis Convention – 1786 called for by Virginia

Only 5 states attended

Called for convention in Philadelphia the following year

Philadelphia Convention – 1787 meant to “revise” the Articles of Confed.

All states but Rhode Island attended

Held in complete secrecy

  • didn’t want arguments public

  • didn’t want to give enemies info.

  • going against public’s wishes


Great Compromise VA Plan – representation by population

NJ Plan – equal representation

Compromise – rep. in House by population

Rep. in Senate equal

Three-Fifths Compromise slaves count as 3/5 to determine population for representation

Slave Trade would continue until 1807


against strong executive “indirect election” of President & Senators through electoral college

against federal judges appointed with life terms
against powerful federal gov. written Constitution based on the “consent of the governed”

“checks & balances”

Anti-Federalists disliked… dropping of annual elections

Federal stronghold in D.C.

Creation of a standing army

No reference to God

Ratification with only 2/3 vote

No Bill of Rights

Federalist Papers -propaganda articles for NY newspaper

-No. 10 said Republican form of gov. would work well for such a large country

-Written by Hamilton, Jay & Madison

State ratifying conventions reps. Elected to vote for or against the new Constitution

Last 4 states to ratify = VA, NY, NC, RI

Finally realized they could not exist independently


President George Washington – 1789

Elected unanimously

Cabinet not mentioned in Constitution

Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson

Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton

Secretary of War Henry Knox

Bill of Rights -drafted by James Madison

-Meant to protect people from the federal government NOT state governments

-9th amendment – enumerated rights does not mean that other rights are not retained by the people

- 10th amendment – implied powers to do what is “necessary and proper”

Judiciary Act – 1789 -organized the Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and 5 others

-federal, district & circuit courts

Hamilton’s Economic Program 1) bolster national credit & public confidence (US credit meant more countries would have stake in success of US)

2) fund US debt plus interest

3) assume state debts (chain states more tightly to fed. Gov.) > Virginia didn’t agree SO Trade-off: Virginia let federal gov. take its debt in exchange for capital located on Potomac River

4) Tariffs to protect infant industries

5) Excise taxes (whiskey)

6) Bank of the United States

Hamilton (loose construction of the Constitution) VS. Jefferson (strict construction)

**Washington sided with Hamilton

Whiskey Rebellion – 1794 excise tax collectors tarred & feathered

Washington sent US troops to PA

** new respect for federal government


Aristocratic rule rule by “informed masses”

Powerful central government state’s rights

Loose interpretation strict interpretation

Protective tariffs for industry agriculture preferred

Pro British pro French

Central bank of the US state banks

Debt no national debt

Strong navy minimal navy


Neutrality Proclamation – 1793 set precedent to stay clear of entangling alliances

British sales of guns to Indians -Indians used guns to attack pioneers

-“Mad” Anthony Wayne crushed Indians at --Battle of Fallen Timbers

-Indians ceded part of Ohio River valley

British impressment of US seamen

Jay’s Treaty – 1794 British to evacuate Northwest posts

Pay damages for seizure of US ships

NOT pay pre-Revolutionary debts

British largely ignored this treaty

Pinckney’s Treaty – 1795 gave US free navigation of the Miss. River

Disputed Florida territory given to US

Citizen Genet French ambassador to US

Recruited for the French army


XYZ Affair Adams sent delegates to France

Demanded bribe to see Talleyrand

Washington’s Farewell Address – 1796 avoid permanent alliances

Avoid political parties

Undeclared War with France – 1797

France seized American ships

US established the Marine Corps

US added ships to the Navy

Federalists mad Adams didn’t declare war
Convention of 1800 Napoleon wanted to free himself for Europe

Formally ended the Franco-American alliance

France paid damages to the US

Alien & Sedition Acts – 1798 -Adams (Federalist) directed at Dem-Rep.

-Imprison or deport “dangerous” foreigners

-Fine or imprison those who slander/libel officials
Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions - written by Jefferson & Madison

-states at heart of government, therefore could judge federal laws “null” if disagree

- Federalists said people, not states, formed gov. & only Supreme Court could judge laws

- Madison switched from Fed. To Dem-Rep. over this issue

”Revolution of 1800” Jefferson president

tied with Burr (House of Reps. Decided

**peaceful regime change from Federalists to Dem-Rep
Inaugural Address “We are all Republicans; we are all Federalists”
Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin

Secretary of State James Madison

Marbury v. Madison – 1801 - Judiciary Act of 1801 created 16 new judgeships

-Adams filled with Federalists before leaving office

-Madison refused to deliver commission to Marbury

-John Marshall dismissed Marbury’s case, avoiding political controversy

-Marshall ruled part of Judiciary Act unconstitutional

**established principle of Judicial Review

Samuel Chase impeachment hearings - simply because he was Federalist


**est. precedent NOT to use impeachment to shape Supreme Court

JEFFERSON AS REPUBLICAN abolished excise tax

JEFFERSON AS FEDERALIST kept many of Adams’ advisors
Tripolitan War – 1801 Barbary pirates attacking in Mediterranean

Jefferson sent marines

Peace treaty negotiated

  • developed respect for US

Louiana Purchase – 1803 - Jefferson was ready to ally with hated England if France held New Orleans

-Napoleon suddenly decided to sell for $15 million

WHY -France lost Santo Domingo for which LA was to be a granary, in revolt led by Toussant L’Ouverture

-he didn’t want US to ally with England

Lewis & Clark – 1804 sent to find overland trail to Pacific
Zebulon Pike explored headwaters of Miss. River & Colorado

Jefferson was torn as a Republican spending SO much money, increasing navy, etc.!!

Aaron Burr’s schemes 1) called for secession of New England & New York

-failed because Hamilton caught him, challenged to duel, Hamilton died

2) separate western US & form new country

- arrested, tried for treason, acquitted

In Europe England ruled waves; France ruled land
Orders in Council closed continental ports under French control to foreign shipping unless ship 1st stopped at British port
Berlin & Milan Decrees ordered seizure of all merchant ships that stopped at British ports
Chesapeake/Leopard incident -Leopard stopped Chesapeake, demanded surrender of 4 alleged deserters

-American commander refused, British fired

British impressment of Americans

Jefferson’s Embargo Act – 1807 -Jefferson thought if US cut off supplies to Europe they would respect American rights

-appeared that Jefferson was punishing Americans, not Europeans (“O grab me”)

-repealed in 1809

Non-Intercourse Act – 1809 reopened trade with Europe EXCEPT Britain & France

POSITIVES forced US to begin industries of our own


Macon’s Bill No. 2 – 1810 -if either England or France would repeal its trade restrictions, US would resume non-importation against the other

-Napoleon lied & said France would comply

-Britain angry
War Hawks -young men from South & West eager for conflict

-eager to take Canada

-want to wipe out Indian threat
Tecumseh & the Prophet -formed Indian confederacy in northwest

-Wm. Henry Harrison defeated at Tippecanoe

-Tecumseh killed at Battle of Thames

-Andrew Jackson defeated Creek at Horseshoe Bend

**paved way for settlement in Ohio River valley

WAR OF 1812

Why Britain and not France? Republican dislike of British

British arming of Indians

British impressments

The call of Canada

Burning of Washington D.C. British captured & burned White House
Star Spangled Banner Francis Scott Key wrote while watching bombing of Baltimore
New Orleans Jackson crushed British – 2,000 killed in ½ hour

Two weeks after Treaty of Ghent signed

American ships “old Ironsides” (the USS Constitution)

Well-crafted, well handled

Treaty of Ghent – 1814 armistice signed Christmas Eve

Stop fighting & restore territory


Hartford Convention – 1814 -Mass, Conn, RI, NH, Vermont

-met in secrecy for 3 weeks

-wanted: financial assistance, more power for New England, Constitutional amendments

-small group proposed secession

**death of the Federalist party, no one took seriously


1) new respect for US armed forces

2) death of Federalist Party

3) brilliant naval tradition

4) War heroes: Harrison & Jackson

5) hostile Indians crushed & their land taken

6) US industry stimulated

7) sense of nationalism

8) turn away from Europe & toward the West

9) bitterness toward England

10) Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) – btwn. England and US to disarm the Great Lakes


literature Washington Irving

James Fennimore Cooper
Nicer capitol built

Expanded US armed forces

Revived Bank of the United States (1816)

New states in west are tied to nation

“American System” proposed by Henry Clay

protective tariff

internal improvements
-because British were “dumping” goods into

US, undercutting US manufacturing

Tariff of 1816 first US protective tariff
Led to sectional debate: -John C.Calhoun – nationalist, supported tariff

-Daniel Webster – opposed tariff, thought would ruin New England shipping

(later these two would reverse positions, Calhoun for state’s rights, Webster for Union)


Why?? Only one political party

President Monroe’s “goodwill” tour

Panic of 1819 overspeculation in frontier lands

Economic depression

The West”

Land Acts 1804 minimum purchase of 160 acres, $2.00/acre,

$80.00 down payment

1820 minimum purchase of 80 acres,$1.25/acre
New States 9 frontier states added btwn. 1791 & 1819

West demanded cheap $ did not like the Bank of the US

Missouri Compromise

1819 Tallmadge Amendment -no more slaves brought to MO

-emancipation for children of current slaves

-defeated in the Senate

** South sees threat to way of life

** South developing own nationalism

1820 Clay’s compromise MO=slave state

Maine, carved from Mass.= free state

Slavery prohibited in rest of LA Purchase above 36’,30

*kept balance in Senate

John Marshall’s key decisions:

BENEFITS -strengthened Union

-Created stable, uniform environment for business

-checked excesses of popularly elected state legislatures

Marbury v. Madison -1803 **Judicial Review (see above)
Fletcher v. Peck – 1810 -Georgia granted 35 million acres to private company after bribery, public outcry caused contract to be cancelled

**Sup. Ct forbid state laws to impair contracts

**Sup. Ct could invalidate state laws that conflict with the Constitution
Dartmouth v. Woodward – 1819 NH wanted to change Dartmouth’s charter

**Sup. Ct. ruled states could not alter contracts

McCulloch v. Maryland – 1819 -Maryland taxing its branch of the Bank of the US to destroy it

-Marshall said it had no power to do so

** federal over state

** affirmed “implied powers” clause

Gibbons v. Ogden – 1824 -NY wanted to grant private company a monopoly on water trade btwn. NY & NJ

**Marshall said only Congress could regulate interstate trade


Treaty of 1818 -Between Britain & USA

-US to share Newfoundland with Canada

-Border of LA Territory set at 49th parallel

-10 year joint-occupation of Oregon

Western Florida – 1810 -uninvited Americans tore down the Spanish flag
Andrew Jackson -was to respect all Spanish posts

-Overzealous: began hanging Spanish, Indians and British

-Rather than apologizing, John Quincy Adams convinced Monroe to demand that Spain either control the area or cede it to the US

Florida Purchase Treaty – 1819 -a.k.a. Adams-Oniz Treaty

-Spain ceded Florida, US gave up claims to Texas

MONROE DOCTRINE – 1823 -European monarchs in process of crushing rebellions

-Fear they might try to step in and crush South American revolts

1) no European colonization in western hemisphere (aimed at Russia in NW)

2) non-intervention from Europe in affairs of western hemisphere (aimed at Spain/England in South America)

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