Chapter Five: The states United Defining American War Aims Pg. (128)

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Danielle Reeves


Mr. Kann

Unit Two Book Notes

Chapter Five: The states United
Defining American War Aims

Pg. (128)

  • After two battles (Lexington and Concord) the 2nd continental congress met without Georgia and agreed to support the war

  • The delegates did not agree on the purpose of the war

  • 1st pole wanted complete independence from Great Britain

  • 2nd pole wanted reconciliation with Great Britain

Olive Branch Petition

Pg. (128)

  • An approved appeal to the king

  • July 6th 1775 the made a more formal appeal

  • The official appeal stated that Americans were left with two choices 1. Unconditional submission to tyranny 2. resistance by force

  • During the first years of fighting Americans changed their minds about war

  • Human and financial costs were too high

  • Colonist believed that the British Government wanted their independence when they denied the OBP.

Prohibitory Act

Pg. (128)

  • Closed colonies to all oversea trades

  • Navel blockade

Common Sense

Pg. (129)

  • A flyer

  • Revolutionary propaganda

  • Aimed for turning Americans anger away from Britain and to the American constitution

The decision for Independence

Pg. (129)

  • The continental congress was moving away from British rule

  • The congress allied with foreign powers

  • It was recommended to create independent governments

  • Congress appointed a committee to make a formal declaration

  • “United colonies are, and, of right, ought to be, free and independent states” (shortened version of declaration)

  • On July 4th the declaration was approved, written by Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin franklin and John Adams

  • 1st part of declaration: government as formed to protect citizens

  • 2nd part of declaration: Alleged crimes by the king

  • Helped inspire others to become independent

  • The declaration officially created The United States of America

Responses to Independence

Pg. (129-130)

  • Many people celebrated independence but others not so much

  • People who did not support the war were not happy

  • Loyalist: Willing the support war as long as it did not go against basic loyalties to the king

Divided Americans

Pg. (129)

  • Each province was no separate

  • Each colony wrote their own constitution/government

  • Forming a national government was harder

  • Started to balance commitment to local and state

Articles of Confederation

Pg. (130)

  • Made unclear central government

  • Fought war with a weak central government

Winning the Peace

Pg. (142-143)

  • Americans were told to cooperate with their France in their negotiations with England

  • France couldn’t agree until all its alli with Spain won back land from the British

  • Spain was not likely to win backs its land so Americans feared their alliance with France would keep them at war

  • Americans signed a peace treaty with G.B and avoided breaking their alliance with France

Treaty of Paris

Pg. (143)

  • Final British and American settlement

  • Spain and France agreed to end fights

War and Society

Pg. (143)

  • There was a question of how and who should rule America

Loyalist and Minorities

Pg. (144)

  • The British and the American loyalists lost the revolution

  • Many Americans did not remain loyal to England during the revolution

  • Merchants supported the revolution

  • People who feared and independent America would not support them supported Britain in the war

Loyalist Plight

Pg. (144)

  • People who were loyal to Britain in the war were hunted down

  • 100,000 loyalist fled the country

  • Usually loyalist were middle class

  • Social economic status did not change during the war but it changed dramatically after the war

Disestablishment of the Anglican Church

Pg. (144)

  • The Angs. Suffered the most in the Revolution

  • Many member of the Ang. Church were loyalist

  • The revolution regimes got rid of the church

  • Anglicans still survived but many of the leaders left

  • The revolution strengthen the roman church

  • After the war the U.S had its own catholic system

The War and Slavery

Pg. (144)

  • Slaves took advantage of Britain being in the South and escaped

  • Britain helped slaves leave to weaken Americans war efforts

African-American desire for Freedom

Pg. (144)

  • A.A resisted white control

  • Blacks began to write

  • In the north the combination of the revolution and church helped spread anti-slavery

  • In the south whites still supported slavery

Tension between Liberty and Slavery

Pg. (145)

  • Enslaving inferior people was the only way to ensure white liberties

  • Southerners feared without slaves whites would have to work

  • Indians did not know which side to choose in the revolution, most stayed out of war

  • Some Indians began to trust the Britains because they tried to keep whites off their land

  • The war weakened the Native Americans

Taking Sides

Pg. (145)

  • Whites were mad that Britain had some Indian support

  • Indian were “Nobel savages”

Growing divisions among the Indians

Pg. (146)

  • Indians in Virginia tried to rebel against white settlers (no one wanted to help)

  • Indians were defeated by colonial forces

  • Americans and Indians still fought even after war

  • The revolution did not settle anything with Indians and Americans

Women’s Rights and Women’s Roles

Pg. (146)

  • When their husbands left for war wives were left alone at war

  • Poor women began to riot for food

  • Attacked occupied British soldiers that they were supposed to shelter

Women of the Army

Pg. (146)

  • Some women went to war with their husbands

  • Seen as a distraction

  • Women created nursing, cooking, and laundry systems

  • Some women also went to combat

  • When woman went back home they went back to their normal roles

  • Women wanted new rights

  • 1st they wanted protection from abusive men

  • 2nd they wanted rights to education

Calls for women’s rights

Pg. (146)

  • Some political men agreed that women should have education

  • In English common law unmarried women had some rights

  • Married women had no rights

  • The revolution did not change women’s rights, but they got more respect from men

The Confederation

Pg. (151)

  • The articles of confederation created a national government

  • Congress still remained the center of the government

Limited power of the National Government

Pg. (151)

  • The congress did not have the power to regulate trade, draft troops, of give taxes

  • The confederation lasted from 1781-1789

Diplomatic Failures

Pg. (151)

Post war disputes with Britain and Spain

Pg. (151)

  • The confederation had difficulty persuading Britain

  • Britain Promised to leave American land

  • Britain failed to pay restitution to slave-owners whose slaves were taken from them

  • They disputed over the northern boundaries

Regional Differences over Diplomatic Policy

Pg. (151)

  • The confederation allied with Spain

  • Spain excepted the Florida boundary and in return America excepted the Spanish land in North America

The Confederation and the Northwest

Pg. (151)

The ordinances of 1784 and 1785

Pg. (151-152)

  • Ordinance of 1784: Divided western land into ten self-governing provinces

  • Ordinance of 1785: Congress created a system for surveying and selling western lands

Northwest Ordinance

Pg. (153)

  • Created one single Northwest territory

  • Specified a max population

  • Prohibited slavery in the Northwest

Indians and The Western Lands

Pg. (153-154)

  • On paper there was a system about to process of white settlement in the Northwest

  • Iroquois threatened to attack the whites

Battle of Fallen Timbers

Pg. (154)

  • Indian tribes defeated America in two major battles

  • Americans tried to negotiate with the Indians but it did not work until they defeated them in the battle of fallen timbers

  • A year after America defeated the Indians they signed the treaty

Debts, Taxes, Daniel Shays

Pg. (154)

Postwar depression

Pg. (154)

  • 1784-1787

  • Increased the problem of Americans not having enough money

  • This problem showed the congresses weaknesses

  • A five percent tax would be placed on all imported goods to pay off the debt

Political disputes over economic

Pg. (155)

  • Congress did not sign the idea of the taxes

  • Poor farmers did not like the taxing system

  • Nationalist withdrew from the confederation

Shays Rebellion

Pg. (155)

  • Poor farmers rioted in New England

  • Daniel Shay started the riots

  • Shays rebellion was a failure

Crash Course Notes

Crash Course: 6

  • The war ended with treaty of Paris

  • Colonist could no longer trade with Indians

  • Colonist obtained war debt

  • British government borrowed money and to pay it back they raised taxes

  • Colonies had no say in new taxes

  • Smugglers would now be persecuted

  • Stamp Act

  1. All printed material needed a stamp

  2. Stamps cost more money

  3. Revenue for Britain

  • Stamp act congress boycotted British goods

  • Brittan repealed the Stamp Act

  • Declaratory act

  1. Saying Britain has the right to tax

  • Townsend act to stop smuggling

  • Boycotts were affective

  • Now only taxes on tea

  • After the Boston tea party Britain began to tax more (intolerable acts)

  • The revolution started because of the acts

  • Continental congress was the 1st American Government

Crash Course: 7

  • Britain wanted to capture all cities and force colonist to surrender

  • They were able to capture the cites

  • Americans had fighting advantages

  • Britain lost because of bad leadership

  • To American loosing property meant loosing rights

  • Loyalty to Britain in the war could give slaves freedom

  • Slaves began to fight for Brittan

  • Indians did not get the rights they wanted

  • Only the ideas of the revolution were revolutionary

  • Revolution-Beginning of true Religious freedoms

  • Separation between church and state

  • North: Paid Labor

  • South: Slave labor

  • James Otis “Unless slaves are free there will be no liberty for all”

  • 1777-1804 all states north of Maryland got rid of slaves

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