Chapter: Chapter 13: Cognitive Development Throughout the Lifespan



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Chapter: Chapter 13: Cognitive Development Throughout the Lifespan
Multiple Choice
1. Research showing that neonates and very young infants can recognize their mother's voice and face has investigated:

a) EEG changes recorded from the cerebellum.

b) heart rate changes.

c) self-reports from mothers of various cultures.

d) verbal communications with the researcher.
Ans: b

Feedback: See page 457


2. Studies have found that both college students and infants learn better with

a) spaced learning.

b) massed learning.

c) irregular learning.

d) bidirectional learning.
Ans: a

Feedback: See page 459


3. Research by Rovee-Collier has revealed that infants:

a) can imitate actions they had seen, but only if they are tested within a minute or two.

b) cannot discriminate their mother's face until they are at least 3 months old.

c) can remember how to activate a mobile even after a delay of several weeks.

d) do not show a distributed practice, or spacing, effect on memory tasks.
Ans: c

Feedback: See page 459


4. Working memory, as measured in terms of the number of items that can be correctly recalled immediately after presentation:

a) increases dramatically during childhood.

b) is essentially zero until a child reaches the age of 5 or 6 years old.

c) cannot be tested until a child is about 5 or 6 years old.

d) is about seven items throughout early and late childhood.
Ans: a

Feedback: See page 461


5. By the time they are about _____ years old, children’s working memory span is about the same as the typical college student.

a) 1


b) 2

c) 9


d) 12
Ans: d

Feedback: See page 461


6. Typically, young children have

a) good recognition and recall memory.

b) good recognition memory, but poor recall memory.

c) poor recognition memory, but good recall memory.

d) poor recognition and recall memory.
Ans: b

Feedback: See page 461


7. The term childhood amnesia refers to the finding that:

a) the prefrontal cortex of children is fully developed when an infant is about 6 months old, at which time he or she shows excellent long-term memory.

b) infants and young children show no ability to remember anything unless they are tested within the span of working memory.

c) older children and adults typically cannot recall personal events they experienced before they were about 2 or 3 years old.

d) infants and young children show no memory of events that occurred before they were born.
Ans: c

Feedback: See pages 463 - 464


8. Below the age of ____, source memory for children tends to much worse than in adults.

a) 2


b) 5

c) 7


d) 12
Ans: c

Feedback: See page 464


9. Young children use

a) rehearsal as a memory strategy.

b) organizational strategies.

c) imagery.

d) few memory strategies in a consistent manner.
Ans: d

Feedback: See pages 465 - 466


10. A recent study (Henry & Gudjonsson, 2007) investigating accuracy of eyewitness testimony revealed that compared to typically developing children, children with intellectual disability:

a) made fewer errors in response to misleading questions.

b) recalled fewer items from a video clip.

c) performed surprisingly better on several measures of working memory.

d) All of the above are correct.
Ans: b

Feedback: See page 470


11. An important variable that influences older adults' performance on memory tasks involves whether:

a) the working-memory task involves letters or digits.

b) the task is an implicit or explicit recognition-memory task.

c) they are tested in the morning or in the evening.

d) All of the above are correct.
Ans: c

Feedback: See page 473


12. What is the current status of research on the hypothesis that older adults show cognitive slowing, or a slower rate of responding on cognitive tasks?

a) The hypothesis has been shown to be untenable (rejected) in nearly all relevant experiments.

b) The hypothesis can easily account for all major age-related differences in working- and long-term memory.

c) The hypothesis can account for some age-related differences in memory, but not all of them.

d) The hypothesis has not yet been tested in any relevant experimental situations.
Ans: c

Feedback: See page 474


13. Children's ideas on how their minds work and on their beliefs about other people's thoughts:

a) develop gradually, reaching a level similar to that of adults when the child is about 2 or 3 years old.

b) reveal that such metacognitive abilities are not yet fully developed by even the age of 7 years.

c) reveal that children are underconfident in their memory performance, whereas college students are overconfident.

d) cannot be tested experimentally because of the inherently limited communication skills of children.
Ans: b

Feedback: See page 477


14. Compared with older adults, children

a) have a similar metamemory ability.

b) are better at metamemory.

c) are worse at metamemory.

d) have no metamemory ability.
Ans: c

Feedback: See page 481


15. Compared to how the metamemory skills of younger adults relates to memory performance, those of older adults:

a) are better, perhaps because of the older adults' use of memory strategies.

b) are significantly worse, and the impairment is age-related and progressive.

c) do not differ in any substantial way.

d) cannot be accurately measured because older adults' actual memory performance is so poor.
Ans: a

Feedback: See pages 481 - 482


16. Humans can recognize the sound patterns when their own name is spoken at about the age of:

a) 4 or 5 months.

b) 12 or 13 months.

c) 1 or 2 years.

d) 4 or 5 years.
Ans: a

Feedback: See page 485


17. Child-directed speech, which is language spoken to children:

a) is produced identically by primary caregivers and secondary caregivers.

b) involves less repetition, smaller changes in pitch, and overly complex syntax.

c) has been shown to retard the development of language in children, although only slightly.

d) may help young language learners understand the meaning and structure of language.
Ans: d

Feedback: See page 487


18. Fast mapping, or using context to make a guess about the meaning of a word:

a) is seen in 6-month-old infants when their heart-rate is measured.

b) is important for both young children and adults.

c) declines considerably as a person ages into older adulthood.

d) has recently been shown to be a uniquely human language ability.
Ans: b

Feedback: See page 490


19. A child who uses the same word to refer to a blanket, a diaper, a diaper pin, and a vitamin pill is displaying a phenomenon known as:

a) overextension.

b) stimulus discrimination.

c) habituation.

d) pragmatics.
Ans: a

Feedback: See page 490


20. Children's speech is telegraphic in that it often omits prepositions and articles, as in the utterance "Doggie ball." This is an issue concerning the development of:

a) phonology.

b) morphology.

c) syntax.



d) All of the above are correct.
Ans: c

Feedback: See pages 491 - 492

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