E. If a union was formed, companies used a lockout to break it. Workers went without pay and were locked out of the property. If the union did strike, employers would hire replacement workers called strikebreakers. F. There were no laws that gave workers the right to organize.
G. Marxism, the ideas of Karl Marx, was popular in Europe. Marx felt it was the class struggle between the workers and the owners that shaped society. He believed the workers would revolt and gain control. After the revolution, Marx believed a socialist society would be created in which the wealth was evenly divided, and classes would no longer exist.
H. Many labor supporters agreed with Marxism, and some supported the idea of anarchism. Anarchists believed society did not need government and that a few acts of violence would cause the government to collapse.
I. As ideas of Marxism and anarchism spread in Europe, tens of thousands of immigrants arrived in the United States. People began to associate Marxism and anarchism with immigrants. They became suspicious of unions as well.