A. Two types of workers were a part of industrial America. Craft workers had special skills and were generally paid more. Common laborers had few skills and as a result received lower wages.
B. In the 1830s, craft workers formed trade unions, which were unions limited to people with specific skills. By the early 1870s, there were over 30 trade unions in the United States.
C. Employers opposed industrial unions, which united all craft workers and common laborers in a particular industry. Companies went to great lengths to prevent unions from forming. Companies would have workers take oaths or sign contracts promising not to join a union. They would also hire detectives to identify union organizers.
D. Workers who organized a union or strike were fired and put on a blacklist—a list of troublemakers. Once blacklisted, a worker could get a job only by changing trade, residence, or his or her name.